ইউরোপ

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
ইউরোপ
Europe (orthographic projection).svg
আয়তন ১,০১,৮০,০০০ কিমি (৩৯,৩০,০০০ মা)[n]
জনসংখ্যা ৭৩৯,১৬৫,০৩০[n] (২০১১), ৩য়
জনঘনত্ব ৭২.৫ জন প্রতি বর্গকিলোমিটারে
অধিবাসীদের নাম ইউরোপীয়
দেশসমূহ ৫০টি (দেশসমূহের তালিকা)
ভাষাসমূহ ভাষাসমূহের তালিকা
সময় অঞ্চলসমূহ ইউটিসি থেকে ইউটিসি+৬
ইন্টারনেট টিএলডি .eu (ইউরোপীয় ইউনিয়ন)
বৃহত্তম শহরসমূহ

ইউরোপ (ইংরেজি: Europe) রীতি অনুসারে বিশ্বের সাতটি মহাদেশের একটি। এটি বৃহত্তর ইউরেশিয়া মহাদেশীয় ভূখণ্ডের পশ্চিমের উপদ্বীপটি নিয়ে গঠিত। পূর্বদিকে উরাল পর্বতমালা, উরাল নদীকাস্পিয়ান সাগর এবং দক্ষিণ-পূর্ব দিকে ককেসাস পর্বতমালা, কুমা-মানিচ অবনমনকৃষ্ণ সাগর ইউরোপকে এশিয়া মহাদেশ থেকে পৃথক করেছে।[১] ইউরোপের উত্তরে রয়েছে উত্তর মহাসাগর, পশ্চিমে আটলান্টিক মহাসাগর এবং দক্ষিণে ভূমধ্যসাগর

সংজ্ঞা[সম্পাদনা]

ব্যুত্পত্তি[সম্পাদনা]

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা]

প্রাগৈতিহাসিক[সম্পাদনা]

ধ্রুপদী সভ্যতা[সম্পাদনা]

প্রারম্ভিক মধ্যযুগ[সম্পাদনা]

মধ্যযুগ[সম্পাদনা]

প্রারম্ভিক আধুনিক সময়[সম্পাদনা]

১৮ এবং ১৯ শতাব্দী[সম্পাদনা]

বিংশ শতাব্দী থেকে বর্তমান[সম্পাদনা]

ভূগোল[সম্পাদনা]

জলবায়ু[সম্পাদনা]

ভূতত্ত্ব[সম্পাদনা]

ভূতাত্ত্বিক ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা]

জীববৈচিত্র্য[সম্পাদনা]

রাজনৈতিক ভূগোল[সম্পাদনা]

একত্রীকরণ[সম্পাদনা]

অর্থনীতি[সম্পাদনা]

প্রাক ১৯৪৫: শিল্পকৌশল বৃদ্ধি[সম্পাদনা]

১৯৪৫-১৯৯০: স্নায়ু যুদ্ধ[সম্পাদনা]

১৯৯১-২০০৭: একত্রীকরণ ও পুনর্মিলন[সম্পাদনা]

২০০৮-২০১০: অর্থনৈতিক মন্দা[সম্পাদনা]

জনপরিসংখ্যান[সম্পাদনা]

ভাষা[সম্পাদনা]

ধর্ম[সম্পাদনা]

সংস্কৃতি[সম্পাদনা]

রাষ্ট্র ও অঞ্চলসমূহ[সম্পাদনা]

আরও দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

নোট[সম্পাদনা]

  1. ^ a b Transnistria, internationally recognised as being a legal part of the Republic of Moldova, although de facto control is exercised by its internationally unrecognised government which declared independence from Moldova in 1990.
  2. ^ Russia is considered a transcontinental country in both Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. People in Russia tend to call the region Northern Eurasia. However only the population figure includes the entire state.
  3. ^ a b c Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are Crown Dependencies of the United Kingdom. Other Channel Islands legislated by the Bailiwick of Guernsey include Alderney and Sark.
  4. ^ a b Cyprus is physiographically entirely in Southwest Asia but has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.
  5. ^ Figures for Portugal include the Azores and Madeira archipelagos, both in Northern Atlantic.
  6. ^ Area figure for Serbia includes Kosovo, a province that unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and whose sovereign status is unclear. Population and density figures are from the first results of 2011 census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  7. ^ Figures for France include only metropolitan France: some politically integral parts of France are geographically located outside Europe.
  8. ^ Netherlands population for July 2004. Population and area details include European portion only: Netherlands and three entities outside Europe (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, in the Caribbean) constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.
  9. ^ Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country, mostly in Central Asia (UN region), partly in Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River. However, only the population figure refers to the entire country.
  10. ^ Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
  11. ^ Azerbaijan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country mostly in Western Asia with a small part in Eastern Europe.[২] However the population and area figures are for the entire state. This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
  12. ^ Georgia is physiographically almost entirely in Western Asia, with a very small part in Eastern Europe, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.[৩][৪] The population and area figures include Georgian estimates for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared and de facto achieved independence. International recognition, however, is limited.
  13. ^ Turkey is physiographically considered a transcontinental country, mostly in Western Asia, partly in Eastern Europe. However only the population figure includes the entire state.
  14. ^ a b c d The total figures for area and population include only European portions of transcontinental countries. The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.
  15. ^ Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July 2009 CIA estimate.
  16. ^ a b Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both generally considered to be entirely within Southwest Asia,[৪] unilaterally declared their independence from Georgia on 25 August 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their status as sovereign nations is not recognised by a vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.
  17. ^ Nagorno-Karabakh, generally considered to be entirely within Southwest Asia, unilaterally declared its independence from Azerbaijan on 6 January 1992. Its status as a sovereign nation is not recognised by any sovereign nation, nor the UN. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Encyclopedia Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2009। ""Europe""। সংগৃহীত 2009-08-21 
  2. The UN Statistics Department [১] places Azerbaijan in Western Asia for statistical convenience [২]: "The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories." The CIA World Factbook [৩] places Azerbaijan in South Western Asia, with a small portion north of the Caucasus range in Europe. National Geographic and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Georgia in Asia.
  3. European Union [৪], the Council of Europe [৫], British Foreign and Commonwealth Office [৬], World Health Organization [৭], World Tourism Organization [৮], UNESCO [৯], UNICEF [১০], UNHCR [১১], European Civil Aviation Conference [১২], Euronews [১৩], BBC [১৪], NATO [১৫], Russian Foreign Ministry [১৬], the World Bank [১৭], Assembly of European Regions [১৮], International Air Transport Association [১৯],Oxford Reference Online, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe [২০], ICRC [২১], Salvation Army [২২], International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies [২৩][অকার্যকর সংযোগ], Council on Foreign Relations [২৪], United States European Command [২৫], Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary [২৬] and www.worldatlas.com.
  4. ৪.০ ৪.১ {{The UN Statistics Department [২৭] places Georgia in Western Asia for statistical convenience [২৮]: "The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories." The CIA World Factbook [২৯],National Geographic, and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Georgia in Asia.}}

বহিঃসংযোগ[সম্পাদনা]

ইউরোপ সম্পর্কে আরও তথ্য পেতে হলে উইকিপিডিয়ার সহপ্রকল্পগুলোতে অনুসন্ধান করে দেখতে পারেন:

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