|এই নির্দেশাবলী বাংলা উইকিপিডিয়ার রচনাশৈলী নির্দেশনার একটি অংশ। এইটি ব্যবহার করতে সাধারণ জ্ঞান ব্যবহার করুন। এই পাতাতে যেকোন স্বতন্ত্র সম্পাদনা জনমতের ভিত্তিতে করা উচিত। কোন সন্দেহ থাকলে, প্রথমে তা আলাপ পাতায় আলোচনা করুন।|
|এই পাতার মূল বক্তব্য: The lead should define the topic and summarize the body of the article with appropriate weight.|
|রচনাশৈলী নির্দেশনা (রচনি)|
The lead section (also known as the lead, introduction or intro) of a Wikipedia article is the section before the table of contents and the first heading. The lead serves as an introduction to the article and a summary of its most important aspects. (The news-journalism jargon term lede is sometimes used, but Wikipedia leads are not written in news style, and journalistic ledes serve different purposes from encyclopedic leads.)
The lead should be able to stand alone as a concise overview. It should define the topic, establish context, explain why the topic is notable, and summarize the most important points—including any prominent controversies. The emphasis given to material in the lead should roughly reflect its importance to the topic, according to reliable, published sources, and the notability of the article's subject is usually established in the first few sentences. Apart from trivial basic facts, significant information should not appear in the lead if it is not covered in the remainder of the article.
The lead is the first part of the article most people read, and many read only the lead. Consideration should be given to creating interest in reading more of the article, but the lead should not "tease" the reader by hinting at content that follows. Instead, the lead should be written in a clear, accessible style with a neutral point of view; it should ideally contain no more than four paragraphs and be carefully sourced as appropriate.
- ১ Elements of the lead
- ২ তথ্যসূত্র
- ৩ Introductory text
- ৩.১ Provide an accessible overview
- ৩.২ Relative emphasis
- ৩.৩ Opening paragraph
- ৪ Biographies of living persons
- ৫ Alternative names
- ৬ Stubs
- ৭ Length
- ৮ Clutter
- ৯ Editing the lead section
- ১০ Cleanup
- ১১ See also
- ১২ Notes
Elements of the lead[সম্পাদনা]
As explained in more detail below, the lead section may contain optional elements presented in the following order: disambiguation links (dablinks), maintenance tags, infoboxes, foreign character warning boxes, images, navigational boxes (navigational templates), introductory text, and table of contents, moving to the heading of the first section.
- Disambiguation links should be the first elements of the page, before any maintenance tags, infobox or image; if a reader has reached the wrong page, they will want to know that first. Text-only browsers and screen readers present the page sequentially. A "for topics of the same name ..." disambiguation link is sometimes put at the beginning of an article to link to another article discussing another meaning of the article title. In such cases, the line should be italicized and indented using templates. Do not make this initial link a section. See also Wikipedia:Hatnote.
- The maintenance tags should be below the disambiguation links. These tags inform the reader about the general quality of the article, and should be presented to the user before the article itself.
- Infoboxes contain summary information or an overview relating to the subject of the article, and therefore should be put before any text (though in actuality they will generally appear to the side of the text of the lead). The primary difference between an infobox and a navigational box is the presence of parameters: a navigational box is exactly the same in all articles of the same topic, while an infobox has different contents in each article.
- Foreign character warning boxes let readers know that foreign characters which may not be supported by their platform or browser appear in the article. If required, they should come adjacent to, or near, any text that has the foreign characters in question, such that scrolling is not required to see the box. This is generally after short infoboxes, but before long ones.
- Images. An image's caption is part of the article text. If the article has disambiguation links (dablinks), then the introductory image should appear just before the introductory text. Otherwise a screen reader would first read the image's caption, which is part of the article's contents, then "jump" outside the article to read the dablink, and then return to the lead section, which is an illogical sequence.
- Sidebars are a collection of links used in multiple related articles to facilitate navigation between those articles. Sidebars are sometimes placed in the lead, especially when no infobox is present. If an infobox is present, the navigation sidebar may be moved to either the top or bottom of any other section in the article.
- Introductory text. উইকিপিডিয়া:Lead section TT text See also Wikipedia:Guide to writing better articles#Lead section.
- The table of contents (TOC) automatically appears on pages with more than three headings. Avoid floating the table of contents if possible, as it breaks the standard look of pages. If you must use a floated TOC, put it below the lead section in the wiki markup for consistency. Users of screen readers expect the table of contents to follow the introductory text; they will also miss any text placed between the TOC and the first heading.
নিবন্ধের ভূমিকাংশ যাচাইযোগ্যতা ও অন্যান্য নীতিমালা মেনে চলবে। যাচাইযোগ্যতা নীতিমালা অনুসারে, নিবন্ধের যে অংশ বিতর্কিত বা বিতর্কের উদ্রেক করে, এবং উক্তি, তা অন্তর্বর্তী উৎসনির্দেশ দ্বারা সমর্থিত হতে হবে। যেহেতু নিবন্ধের ভূমিকাংশের তথ্য নিবন্ধে মূল অংশে পুনরায় পাওয়া যায়, সেহেতু সম্পাদককে একই তথ্যসূত্র বারবার দেওয়া এড়িয়ে যাওয়ার ইচ্ছের সঙ্গে বিতর্কিত অংশের তথ্যসূত্র সমর্থন প্রদানের মাধ্যমে পাঠকের সুবিধা করার ইচ্ছার ভারসাম্য করতে হবে। নিবন্ধের মূল অংশ অপেক্ষা ভূমিকাংশটি সাধারণ ভাবে লেখা হয়ে থাকে, এবং ভূমিকাংশে অবিতর্কিত বিষয়ের ওপর তথ্যের জন্য তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন হয় না; কিন্তু তা হলেও ভূমিকাংশের জন্য তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন হয় না, তা নয়। ভূমিকাংশে তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন কি না তা সম্পাদকীয় ঐকমত্য দ্বারা পর্যালোচনা করে স্থির করা উচিৎ। জটিল, বর্তমান বা বিতর্কিত বিষয়ে একাধিক তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন হতে পারে, বাকিগুলির ক্ষত্রে অল্প বা না হলেও চলবে। কোন নিবন্ধে তথ্যসূত্রের উপস্থিতি প্রয়োজনীয়ও নয় আবার নিষিদ্ধও নয়।
Provide an accessible overview[সম্পাদনা]
The lead section should briefly summarize the most important points covered in an article in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. The reason for a topic's noteworthiness should be established, or at least introduced, in the lead (but not by using "peacock terms" such as "acclaimed" or "award-winning"). It is even more important here than in the rest of the article that the text be accessible. Do not hint at startling facts without describing them. Consideration should be given to creating interest in the article. Editors should avoid lengthy paragraphs and over-specific descriptions, since greater detail is saved for the body of the article.
In general, introduce useful abbreviations, but avoid difficult to understand terminology and symbols. Mathematical equations and formulas should be avoided when they conflict with the goal of making the lead section accessible to as broad an audience as possible. Where uncommon terms are essential, they should be placed in context, linked and briefly defined. The subject should be placed in a context familiar to a normal reader. For example, it is better to describe the location of a town with reference to an area or larger place than with coordinates. Readers should not be dropped into the middle of the subject from the first word; they should be eased into it.
According to the policy on due weight, emphasis given to material should reflect its relative importance to the subject, according to published reliable sources. This is true for both the lead and the body of the article. If there is a difference in emphasis between the two, editors should seek to resolve the discrepancy. Significant information should not appear in the lead if it is not covered in the remainder of the article, although not everything in the lead must be repeated in the body of the text. Exceptions include specific facts such as quotations, examples, birth dates, taxonomic names, case numbers, and titles. This admonition should not be taken as a reason to exclude information from the lead, but rather to harmonize coverage in the lead with material in the body of the article.
The first paragraph should define the topic with a neutral point of view, but without being overly specific. It should establish the context in which the topic is being considered by supplying the set of circumstances or facts that surround it. If appropriate, it should give the location and time. It should also establish the boundaries of the topic; for example, the lead for the article List of environmental issues succinctly states the limits of that list.
The first sentence should tell the nonspecialist reader what (or who) the subject is.
- If possible, the page title should be the subject of the first sentence. However, if the article title is merely descriptive—such as Electrical characteristics of dynamic loudspeakers—the title does not need to appear verbatim in the main text.
- Similarly, if the page is a list, do not introduce the list as "This is a list of X" or "This list of Xs...". A clearer and more informative introduction to the list is better than verbatim repetition of the title. (See Format of the first sentence below).
- When the page title is used as the subject of the first sentence, it may appear in a slightly different form, and it may include variations, including synonyms. Similarly, if the title has a parenthetical disambiguator, the disambiguator should be omitted in the text.
- If its subject is definable, then the first sentence should give a concise definition: where possible, one that puts the article in context for the nonspecialist. Similarly, if the title is a specialised term, provide the context as early as possible.
- Redundancy must be kept to a minimum in the first sentence. Use the first sentence of the article to provide relevant information which is not already given by the title of the article. Remember that the title of the article need not appear verbatim in the lead.
- For topics notable for only one reason, this reason should usually be given in the first sentence.
- If the article is about a fictional character or place, say so.
Format of the first sentence[সম্পাদনা]
If an article's title is a formal or widely accepted name for the subject, display it in bold as early as possible in the first sentence:
Otherwise, include the title if it can be accommodated in normal English:
Only the first occurrence of the title and significant alternative titles are placed in bold:
If the article's title does not lend itself to being used easily and naturally in the opening sentence, the wording should not be distorted in an effort to include it:
The 2011 Mississippi River floods were a series of floods affecting the Mississippi River in April and May 2011, which were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway in the past century. (2011 Mississippi River floods)
Instead, simply describe the subject in normal English, avoiding unnecessary redundancy:
If the article's exact title is absent from the first sentence, do not apply the bold style to related text that does appear:
(Disambiguation pages, however, use bolding for the link to the primary topic, if there is one.)
Proper names and titles[সম্পাদনা]
If the title of the page is normally italicized (for example, a work of art, literature, album, or ship) then its first mention should be both bold and italic text; if it is usually surrounded by quotation marks, the title should be bold but the quotation marks should not be:
Las Meninas (Spanish for The Maids of Honour) is a 1656 painting by Diego Velázquez, ...
Abbreviations and synonyms[সম্পাদনা]
If the subject of the page has a common abbreviation or more than one name, the abbreviation (in parentheses) and each additional name should be in boldface on its first appearance.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is ...
Do not boldface foreign names not normally used in English, or variations included only to show etymology. However, some foreign terms should be italicized. These cases are described in the Manual of Style for text formatting.
In any case, consider footnoting equivalents in non-roman scripts and their transliterations rather than placing them at the opening of an article.
If the name of the article has a pronunciation that's not apparent from its spelling, include its pronunciation in parentheses after the first occurrence of the name. Most such terms are foreign words or phrases (mate, coup d'état), proper nouns (Ralph Fiennes, Tuolumne River, Tao Te Ching), or very unusual English words (synecdoche, atlatl). Do not include pronunciations for names of foreign countries whose pronunciations are well known in English (France, Poland) or common English words that violate ordinary English orthography (laughter, sword). If the name of the article is more than one word, include pronunciation only for the words that need it unless all are foreign (all of Jean van Heijenoort but only Cholmondeley in Thomas P. G. Cholmondeley). A fuller discussion of pronunciation can come later in the article.
For example, an article about a building or location should include a link to the broader geographical area of which it is a part.
In an article about a technical or jargon term, the opening sentence or paragraph should normally contain a link to the field of study that the term comes from.
The first sentence of an article about a person should link to the page or pages about the topic where the person achieved prominence.
Harvey Lavan "Van" Cliburn, Jr. (born July 12, 1934), is an American pianist who achieved worldwide recognition in 1958 at age 23, when he won the first quadrennial International Tchaikovsky Piano Competition in Moscow, at the height of the Cold War.
Exactly what provides the context needed to understand a given topic varies greatly from topic to topic.
Do not, however, add contextual links that don't relate directly to the topic's definition or reason for notability. For example, Van Cliburn's opening sentence links to Cold War because his fame came partly from his Tchaikovsky Competition victory being used as a Cold War symbol. The first sentence of a page about someone who rose to fame in the 1950s for reasons unrelated to the Cold War should not mention the Cold War at all, even though the Cold War is part of the broader historical context of that person's life. By the same token, do not link to years unless the year has some special salience to the topic.
Links appearing ahead of the bolded term distract from the topic if not necessary to establish context, and should be omitted even if they might be appropriate elsewhere in the text. For example, a person's title or office, such as colonel, naturally appears ahead of their name, but the word "Colonel" should not have a link, since it doesn't establish context. Do not, however, reword a sentence awkwardly just to keep a needed contextual link from getting ahead of the bolded term.
When a common (vernacular) name is used as the article title, the boldfaced common name is followed by the italic un-boldfaced scientific name in round parentheses in the opening sentence of the lead. Alternative names should be mentioned and reliably sourced in the text where applicable, with bold type in the lead if they are in wide use, or elsewhere in the article (with or without the bold type, per editorial discretion) if they are less used. It is not necessary to include non-English common names, unless they are also commonly used in English, e.g. regionally; if included, they should be italicized as non-English.
- Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is the most common gazelle of East Africa ...
- Grunters or tigerperches are fishes in the family Terapontidae ...
- The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles ...
When the article title is the scientific name, reverse the order of the scientific and common name(s) (if any of the latter are given), and boldface as well as italicize the scientific name.
- Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia ...
- Brassica oleracea is the species of plant that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, savoy, and Chinese kale ...
Biographies of living persons[সম্পাদনা]
When writing about controversies in the lead of the biography of a living person, notable material should neither be suppressed nor allowed to overwhelm: always pay scrupulous attention to reliable sources. Write clinically, and let the facts speak for themselves.
Well-publicized recent events affecting a subject, whether controversial or not, should be kept in historical perspective. What is most recent is not necessarily what is most notable: new information should be carefully balanced against old, with due weight accorded to each. When a subject dies, the lead need not be radically reworked. Unless the cause of death is itself a reason for notability, a single sentence describing it is usually sufficient.
By the design of Wikipedia's software, an article can have only one title. When this title is a name, significant alternative names for the topic should be mentioned in the article, usually in the first sentence or paragraph. These may include alternative spellings, longer or shorter forms, historical names, and significant names in other languages. Indeed, alternative names can be used in article text in contexts where they are more appropriate than the name used as the title of the article. For example, the city now called "Gdańsk" can be referred to as "Danzig" in suited historical contexts. The editor needs to balance the desire to maximize the information available to the reader with the need to maintain readability.
Although Wikipedia's naming convention guidelines recommend the use of English, there are instances where the subject of an article is best known in English-speaking sources by its non-English name. In this case, the non-English title may be appropriate for the article.
Usage in first sentence[সম্পাদনা]
In articles about people, literary and artistic works, scientific principles and concepts, and other subjects, the title can be followed in the first line by one or two alternative names in parentheses. The following are examples of names that may be included parenthetically, although inclusion should reflect consensus. The guideline for place names differs in this regard.
- Archaic names, including names used before the standardization of English orthography should be clearly marked as such, i.e., (archaic: name).
- Relevant foreign-language names, such as in an article on a person who does not themselves write their name in English, are encouraged. Separate languages should be divided by semicolons, and romanizations of non-Latin scripts by commas.
The name of a person is presented in full if known, including any given names that are not included in the article's title or are abbreviated there. For example, the article on Calvin Coolidge gives his name as John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. If a person has a commonly known nickname, used in lieu of a given name, it is presented between quote marks following the last given name or initial, as for John F. Kennedy, which has John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy. The quotation marks are not put in bold. A nickname that comes in place of the whole name should be presented after the full name, in parentheses. Also acceptable are formulations like "Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli", when applicable.
Consider footnoting foreign-language and archaic names if they would otherwise clutter the opening sentence.
Separate section usage[সম্পাদনা]
Alternatively, if there are more than two alternative names, these names can be moved to and explained in a "Names" or "Etymology" section; it is recommended that this be done if there are at least three alternate names, or there is something notable about the names themselves. Once such a section or paragraph is created, the alternative English or foreign names should not be moved back to the first line. As an exception, a local official name different from a widely accepted English name should be retained in the lead.
Where the article is a stub, a lead may not be necessary at all. Wikipedia encourages expanding stubs, but if reliably sourced information is not available, this may not be possible. Once an article has been sufficiently expanded, generally to around 400 or 500 words, editors should consider introducing section headings.
The appropriate length of the lead section depends on the total length of the article. As a general guideline—not an absolute rule—the lead should normally be no longer than four paragraphs. The following suggestion may be useful:
|Article length||Lead length|
|Fewer than 15,000 characters||One or two paragraphs|
|15,000–30,000 characters||Two or three paragraphs|
|More than 30,000 characters||Three or four paragraphs|
The lead often becomes cluttered with parenthetical details (often to the point of absurdity) and should be reduced. For example, the lead from Genghis Khan read:
Genghis Khan (English pronunciation:/ / or / /;; Cyrillic: Чингис Хаан, Chingis Khaan, টেমপ্লেট:IPA-mn; Mongol script: , Činggis Qaɣan; চীনা: 成吉思汗; পিনয়িন: Chéng Jí Sī Hán; probably May 31, 1162 – August 25, 1227), born Temujin (English pronunciation: //; মঙ্গোলীয়: Тэмүжин, Temüjin টেমপ্লেট:IPA-mn; মধ্য মোঙ্গল ভাষা: Temüjin; ঐতিহ্যবাহী চীনা: 鐵木真; সরলীকৃত চীনা: 铁木真; পিনয়িন: Tiě mù zhēn) and also known by the temple name Taizu (চীনা: 元太祖; পিনয়িন: Yuán Tàizǔ; ওয়েড-জাইলস: T'ai-Tsu), was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Some parenthetical material may be notable enough to be among the first information presented, but much of it can be moved to footnotes, infoboxes, or into the body of the article. If this results in extensive footnotes which themselves contain references, notes and references can be split, as explained at WP:REFNOTE.
Editing the lead section[সম্পাদনা]
Editing the lead section can be cumbersome in long articles, because by default there is no edit link. The primary option is to open the entire article in the editing window by clicking on the "Edit" or "edit this page" tab at the top. However, this method increases the risk of edit conflicts in popular articles, and may cause problems if the page being edited is too large.
Registered users can override this default via:
- some user-written scripts that enable you to edit section 0.
All users can use the following:
- Click "edit" for any section and, in the resulting URL, replace the trailing §ion=n with §ion=0 before re-loading the page.
For a list of template messages related to the clean-up of lead sections, see Wikipedia:Template messages/Cleanup#Introduction. Editors are encouraged to improve leads rather than simply tag them.
- Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility
- Wikipedia:Lead section TT first sentence content
- Wikipedia:Lead section TT first sentence format
- Wikipedia:Lead section TT text
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Introductions
- Wikipedia:Writing better articles
- Wikipedia's Good definition policy
- Journalistic ledes typically take two forms: Magazine/tabloid ledes most often are "teasers" that intentionally omit some crucial details to entice readers to read the full story, or even "bury the lede" by hiding the most important fact; newspaper and broadcast ledes are extremely compressed summaries of the one-to-three most important facts in a piece, given in the first sentence or two.
- Do not violate Wikipedia:Neutral point of view by giving undue attention to less important controversies in the lead section.
- For example:
This Manual of Style is a style guide containing ...
This style guide, known as the Manual of Style, contains ...
- For example, in the article "United Kingdom":
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain, is a sovereign island country located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe.
- Thus, the article Egg (food) should start like this:
An egg is an ovum produced by ...
An egg (food) is an ovum produced by ...
- For example, instead of:
A trusted third party is an entity that facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party.
In cryptography, a trusted third party is an entity that facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party.
- For example, instead of
Sometimes a little redundancy is unavoidable. The Oxford English Dictionary has to be called by its proper name in its article, and cannot be called anything other than a dictionary in the first sentence. Even in these cases, the first sentence must provide information not given in the title. But try to rephrase whenever possible. Instead of:
The Oxford English Dictionary [...] is a comprehensive dictionary of the English language.
The Oxford English Dictionary [...] is the premier dictionary of the English language.
- For example:
Amalie Emmy Noethermathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and her contributions to theoretical physics.
This example not only tells the reader that the subject was a mathematician, it also indicates her field of expertise and work she did outside of it. The years of her birth and death provide time context. The reader who goes no further in this article already knows when she lived, what work she did, and why she is notable. (Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biographies has more on the specific format for biography articles.)
- For example:
Homer Simpson is a fictional character in The Simpsons.
- Many, but not all, articles repeat the article title in bold face in the first line of the article. Linking the article to itself produces boldface text; this practice is discouraged as page moves will result in a useless circular link through a redirect. Linking part of the bolded text is also discouraged because it changes the visual effect of bolding; some readers will miss the visual cue which is the purpose of using bold face in the first place.