পিনয়িন

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
(ফিনিন থেকে পুনর্নির্দেশিত)

হানিউ পিনয়িন ( simplified Chinese ), যাকে সংক্ষেপে প্রায়ই পিনয়িন বলে হয়। মূল ভূখণ্ডের চীনে, তাইওয়ানের কিছু অংশে এবং সিঙ্গাপুরে স্ট্যান্ডার্ড ম্যান্ডারিন চীনাদের জন্য অফিসিয়াল রোমানাইজেশন সিস্টেম আছে। এটি প্রায়ই স্ট্যান্ডার্ড ম্যান্ডারিন শেখাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়, যা সাধারণত চীনা অক্ষর ব্যবহার করে লেখা হয়। সিস্টেমে চারটি ডায়াক্রিটিক টোন বোঝায় । টোন চিহ্ন ছাড়াই পিনয়িন ল্যাটিন বর্ণমালার সাথে লেখা ভাষায় চীনা নাম। শব্দের বানান করতে ও চীনা অক্ষর প্রবেশ করার জন্য নির্দিষ্ট কম্পিউটার ইনপুট পদ্ধতিতে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

হানিউ শব্দটির ( simplified Chinese ) অর্থ ' হান জনগণের কথ্য ভাষা ', অন্যদিকে Pīnyīn (拼音) এর আক্ষরিক অর্থ 'বানান ধ্বনি'।

Yiling, Yichang, Hubei- এ, রাস্তার চিহ্নের টেক্সট চীনা অক্ষরে এবং Hanyu Pinyin উভয় ক্ষেত্রেই দেখা যায়

আদ্যক্ষর[সম্পাদনা]

নীচের প্রতিটি কক্ষে, গাঢ় অক্ষরগুলি পিনয়িনকে নির্দেশ করে ও বন্ধনীগুলি আন্তর্জাতিক ফোনেটিক বর্ণমালায় চিহ্নটিকে আবদ্ধ করে৷

ল্যাবিয়াল অ্যালভিওলার রেট্রোফ্লেক্স অ্যালভিওলো-পালটাল ভেলার
প্লোসিভ unaspirated [p] <b id="mwAUo"><big id="mwAUs">ঘ</big></b> <span about="#mwt218" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[t]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAUw" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[t]</span> জি [k]
aspirated পি [pʰ] <b id="mwAV4"><big id="mwAV8">টি</big></b> <span about="#mwt222" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[tʰ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAWA" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[tʰ]</span> k [kʰ]
নাসিকা আমি [ মি [m] n [n]
আফ্রিকেট unaspirated <b id="mwAYA"><big id="mwAYE">z</big></b> <span about="#mwt227" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ts]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAYI" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ts]</span> <b id="mwAYU"><big id="mwAYY">zh</big></b> <span about="#mwt228" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ʈʂ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAYc" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ʈʂ]</span> <b id="mwAYo"><big id="mwAYs">j</big></b> <span about="#mwt229" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[tɕ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAYw" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[tɕ]</span>
aspirated <b id="mwAZQ"><big id="mwAZU">গ</big></b> <span about="#mwt231" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[tsʰ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAZY" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[tsʰ]</span> <b id="mwAZk"><big id="mwAZo">ch</big></b> <span about="#mwt232" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ʈʂʰ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAZs" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ʈʂʰ]</span> <b id="mwAZ4"><big id="mwAZ8">q</big></b> <span about="#mwt233" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[tɕʰ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAaA" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[tɕʰ]</span>
ফ্রিকেটিভ <b id="mwAac"><big id="mwAag">চ</big></b> <span about="#mwt234" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[f]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAak" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[f]</span> গুলি [s] [ʂ] <b id="mwAbY"><big id="mwAbc">x</big></b> <span about="#mwt237" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ɕ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAbg" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ɕ]</span> ঘন্টা [x]
তরল l [l] r <span about="#mwt240" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ɻ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAcs" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ɻ]</span> ~ [ʐ]
অর্ধভঙ্গ 2 y <span about="#mwt242" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[j]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAdg" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[j]</span> / <span about="#mwt243" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[ɥ]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAdo" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[ɥ]</span> 1 এবং w <span about="#mwt244" class="IPA" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;আধ্বব&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./টেমপ্লেট:আধ্বব&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;[w]&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAd8" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[w]</span>

1 y উচ্চারিত হয় [ɥ] (একটি labial-palatal approximant ) u এর আগে।</br> 2 w এবং y অক্ষরগুলি অফিসিয়াল পিনইন সিস্টেমের আদ্যক্ষর সারণীতে অন্তর্ভুক্ত নয়। এগুলি মধ্যবর্তী i, u এবং ü এর জন্য একটি অর্থোগ্রাফিক কনভেনশন যখন কোনও প্রাথমিক উপস্থিত থাকে না। যখন i, u, বা ü চূড়ান্ত হয় এবং কোন প্রাথমিক উপস্থিত থাকে না, তখন তাদের যথাক্রমে yi, wu এবং yu বানান হয়।

ঝুয়িন সিস্টেম ("বোপোমোফো") থেকে উদ্ভূত প্রচলিত আভিধানিক ক্রম ( w এবং y ব্যতীত), হল:

ফাইনাল[সম্পাদনা]

টেমপ্লেট:Mandarin vowels

রিমে
-ই/-ও -ক -ই আই -এআই -তুমি -আও -n -en -একটি -এনজি -ওং -ইঞ্জি -এং এর
মিডিয়াল [ɨ]







-i
[ɤ]



e



-ই
[a]







-ক
[ei̯]



ই আই



-ই আই
[ai̯]



ai



-এআই
[ou̯]



ou



-তুমি
[au̯]



ao



-আও
[ən]



en



-en
[an]



একটি



-একটি
[ʊŋ]







-ওং
[əŋ]



eng



-ইঞ্জি
[aŋ]



ang



-এং
[ɚ]



er 1



 
y-



</br> -আমি-
[i]



yi



-i
[je]



তুমি



-যেমন
[ja]



হ্যাঁ



-আমি একটি
[jou̯]



আপনি



-iu
[jau̯]



ইয়াও



-আও
[in]



ইয়িন



-ভিতরে
[jɛn]



ইয়ান



-ইয়ান
[iŋ]



ইং



-ing
[jʊŋ]



ইয়ং



-আয়ং
[jaŋ]



ইয়াং



-ইয়াং
w-



</br> -উ-
[u]







-উ
[wo]



wo



-uo 3
[wa]



ওয়া



-উএ
[wei̯]



wei



-ইউআই
[wai̯]



ওয়াই



-uai
[wən]



wen



-আন
[wan]



wan



-উআন
[wəŋ]



weng



 
[waŋ]



wang



-উয়াং
ইউ-



</br> -উ-
[y]



ইউ



2
[ɥe]



yue



-উই
[yn]



ইউন



-উন 2
[ɥɛn]



ইউয়ান



-উআন 2
Pinyin IPA English approximation[১] Explanation
b [p] spark unaspirated p, as in spark
p [] pay strongly aspirated p, as in pit
m [m] may as in English mummy
f [f] fair as in English fun
d [t] stop unaspirated t, as in stop
t [] take strongly aspirated t, as in top
n [n] nay as in English nit
l [l] lay as in English love
g [k], [q] skill unaspirated k, as in skill
k [], [] kay strongly aspirated k, as in kill
h [x], [h] loch Varies between hat and Scottish loch.
j [] churchyard Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English, but similar to an unaspirated "-chy-" sound when said quickly. Like q, but unaspirated. Is similar to the English name of the letter G, but curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth.
q [tɕʰ] punch yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like punch yourself, with the lips spread wide as when one says ee. Curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth and strongly aspirate.
x [ɕ] push yourself Alveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like -sh y-, with the lips spread as when one says ee and with the tip of the tongue curled downwards and stuck to the back of the teeth.
zh [ʈʂ] nurture Unaspirated ch. Similar to hatching but retroflex, or marching in American English. Voiced in a toneless syllable.
ch [ʈʂʰ] church Similar to chin, but retroflex.
sh [ʂ] shirt Similar to shoe but retroflex, or marsh in American English.
r [ɻ~ʐ] ray No equivalent in English, but similar to a sound between r in reduce and s in measure but with the tongue curled upward against the top of the mouth (i.e. retroflex).
z [ts] pizza unaspirated c, similar to something between suds but voiceless, unless in a toneless syllable.
c [tsʰ] hats like the English ts in cats, but strongly aspirated, very similar to the Czech, Polish, Esperanto, and Slovak c.
s [s] say as in sun
w [w] way as in water. Before an e or a it is sometimes pronounced like v as in violin.*
y [j], [ɥ] yes as in yes. Before a u, pronounced with rounded lips, as if pronouncing German ü.*
Pinyin IPA Form with zero initial Explanation
-i [ɹ̩~], [ɻ̩~ʐ̩] (n/a) -i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-.

(In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)

a [a] a like English father, but a bit more fronted
e [ɤ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেশুনুন) e a back, unrounded vowel (similar to English duh, but not as open). Pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ].
ai [ai̯] ai like English eye, but a bit lighter
ei [ei̯] ei as in hey
ao [au̯] ao approximately as in cow; the a is much more audible than the o
ou [ou̯] ou as in North American English so
an [an] an like British English ban, but more central
en [ən] en as in taken
ang [aŋ] ang as in German Angst.

(Starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in some dialects of American English)

eng [əŋ] eng like e in en above but with ng appended
ong [ʊŋ] (weng) starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing. Varies between [oŋ] and [uŋ] depending on the speaker.
er [aɚ̯] er Similar to the sound in bar in English. Can also be pronounced [ɚ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with i- (y-)
i [i] yi like English bee
ia [ja] ya as i + a; like English yard
ie [je] ye as i + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
iao [jau̯] yao as i + ao
iu [jou̯] you as i + ou
ian [jɛn] yan as i + an; like English yen. Varies between [jen] and [jan] depending on the speaker.
in [in] yin as i + n
iang [jaŋ] yang as i + ang
ing [iŋ] ying as i + ng
iong [jʊŋ] yong as i + ong. Varies between [joŋ] and [juŋ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with u- (w-)
u [u] wu like English oo
ua [wa] wa as u + a
uo, o [wo] wo as u + o where the o (compare with the o interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter (spelled as o after b, p, m or f)
uai [wai̯] wai as u + ai, as in English why
ui [wei̯] wei as u + ei
uan [wan] wan as u + an
un [wən] wen as u + en; as in English won
uang [waŋ] wang as u + ang
(ong) [wəŋ] weng as u + eng
Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)
u, ü [y] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেশুনুন) yu as in German über or French lune.

(Pronounced as English ee with rounded lips)

ue, üe [ɥe] yue as ü + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
uan [ɥɛn] yuan as ü + an. Varies between [ɥen] and [ɥan] depending on the speaker.
un [yn] yun as ü + n
Interjections
ê [ɛ] (n/a) as in bet
o [ɔ] (n/a) approximately as in British English office; the lips are much more rounded
io [jɔ] yo as i + o
গতানুগতিক অফিসিয়াল (স্থানীয় নামের জন্য পিনয়িন) চিরাচরিত চীনা নাম সরলীকৃত চীনা নাম চীনা নামের জন্য পিনয়িন
শিগাৎসে Xigazê 日喀則 日喀则 Rìkāzé
উরুমচি উরুমকি 烏魯木齊 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
লাসা লাসা 拉薩 拉萨 Lāsà
হোহোট হোহোট 呼和浩特 呼和浩特 Hūhéhàotè
গোলমুদ গোলমুদ 格爾木 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
কিকিহার কিকিহার 齊齊哈爾 齐齐哈尔 Qíqíhā'ěr

আরো দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

  • সংমিশ্রণ চরিত্র
  • চীনা সিরিলাইজেশন
  • পিনয়িন ইনপুট পদ্ধতি
  • জাপানিদের রোমানাইজেশন
  • তিব্বতি পিনয়িন
  • চীনা অক্ষর মধ্যে প্রতিলিপি
  • চাইনিজ ট্রান্সক্রিপশন সিস্টেমের তুলনা
  • দুই কোষের চাইনিজ ব্রেইল

মন্তব্য[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

বাহ্যিক লিঙ্ক[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Shea, Marilyn। "Pinyin / Ting - The Chinese Experience"hua.umf.maine.edu। ১২ জুন ২০১০ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ ডিসেম্বর ২০১০