উইকিপিডিয়া:সংযোগ

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
সরাসরি যাও: পরিভ্রমণ, অনুসন্ধান

Linking through hyperlinks is an important feature of Wikipedia. Internal links bind the project together into an interconnected whole; interwiki links link the project to sister projects such as Wikipedia in other languages, Wikisource and Wiktionary, and external links help to embed Wikipedia into the external World Wide Web.

Links provide instant pathways to locations within and outside the project that are likely to increase our readers' understanding of the topic at hand. When writing or editing an article, it is important to consider not only what to put in the article itself, but what links should be included to help the reader find related information, as well as which other pages should carry links to the article. Care should be taken to avoid underlinking and overlinking, as described below.

This page contains guidelines as to when links should and should not be used, and how to format them. Detailed information about the syntax used to create links can be found at Help:Link. The rules on linking applicable to disambiguation pages are set out in the disambiguation style guide.

Principles[সম্পাদনা]

Wikipedia is based on hypertext, and aims to "build the web" to enable readers to find relevant information on other pages with just a click of the mouse. Therefore in adding or removing links, consider an article's place in the knowledge tree. Internal links can add to the cohesion and utility of Wikipedia, allowing readers to deepen their understanding of a topic by conveniently accessing other articles. Ask yourself, "How likely is it that the reader will also want to read that other article?" These links should be included where it is most likely that readers might want to use them; for example, in article leads, the openings of new sections, table cells, and image captions. The page from which the hyperlink is activated is called "the anchor"; the page the link points to is called the "the target".

General points on linking style[সম্পাদনা]

  • As explained in more detail at Help:Links#Wikilinks, linking can be "direct" ([[Riverside, California]], which results in Riverside, California), or "piped" ([[Riverside, California|Riverside]]), which results in Riverside in the text, but still links to the article "Riverside, California").
  • Section headings should not themselves contain links (see WP:ACCESS for why); instead, a {{main}} or {{seealso}} template should be placed immediately after the heading.
  • Links should not be placed in the boldface reiteration of the title in the opening sentence of a lead.[১]
  • Items within quotations should not generally be linked; instead, consider placing the relevant links in the surrounding text or in the "See also" section of the article.
  • When possible, avoid placing links next to each other so that they look like a single link, as in [[Ireland|Irish]] [[Chess]] [[Championship]] (Irish Chess Championship). Consider rephrasing the sentence, omitting one of the links, or using a more specific single link (e.g. to Irish Chess Championship) instead.
  • Articles on technical subjects might need a higher density of links than in general-interest articles, due to their larger number of technical terms that general dictionaries are unlikely to explain in context.
  • Do not create links to user or wikiproject pages in articles, except in articles about Wikipedia itself (see WP:Self-references to avoid).

Overlinking and underlinking[সম্পাদনা]

Provide links that aid navigation and understanding, but avoid cluttering the page with obvious, redundant and useless links. An article is said to be underlinked if subjects are not linked that are helpful to the understanding of the article or its context. However, overlinking[২] is also something to be avoided, as it can make it harder for the reader to identify and follow those links which are likely to be of value.

  • Do not link to a page that redirects back to the page the link is on.
  • Do not be afraid to create links to potential articles that do not yet exist (see Red links below).
  • Think carefully before you remove a link altogether—what may seem like an irrelevant link to you may be useful to other readers.
  • If you feel that a certain link does not belong in the body of the text, consider moving it to a "See also" section at the bottom of the article. (Remember that links can also be useful when applying the "What links here" feature from the target page.)

Some editors feel that the lead section is a special case. On the one hand it might be desirable to have fewer links in the lead section than in the body of the text; while some links make it easier to scan a longer lead by highlighting key terms, too many make it harder. On the other hand, in technical articles that use many uncommon terms in the introduction, a higher-than-usual link density in the lead section may be necessary to facilitate understanding; but, if possible, try giving an informal explanation in the lead, avoiding using too many technical terms until later in the article: see point 5 of WP:NOT#Wikipedia is not a manual, guidebook, textbook, or scientific journal, and WP:Make technical articles accessible.

What generally should be linked[সম্পাদনা]

In general, links should be created to:

  • relevant connections to the subject of another article that will help readers to understand the current article more fully (see the example below). This can include people, events and topics that already have an article or that clearly deserve one, as long as the link is relevant to the article in question.
  • articles with relevant information, for example: "see Fourier series for relevant background".
  • articles explaining technical terms, jargon or slang expressions, unless they are defined in the article – but always consider providing a concise definition instead of or in addition to a link to another article. If a technical or slang term doesn't have its own article, an interwiki link to Wiktionary may be the most appropriate.
  • articles about geographic places that are likely to be unfamiliar to readers or that in the context may be confused with places that have a similar or identical name.

What generally should not be linked[সম্পাদনা]

Unless they are particularly relevant to the topic of the article, avoid linking terms whose meaning can be understood by most readers of the English Wikipedia, including plain English words, the names of major geographic features and locations, religions, languages, common professions, common units of measurement,[৩] and dates (but see Chronological items below).

An example article[সম্পাদনা]

For example, in the article on supply and demand:

  • almost certainly link "microeconomic theory" and "general equilibrium", as these are technical terms that many readers are unlikely to understand at first sight;
  • consider linking "price" and "goods" only if these common words have technical dimensions that are specifically relevant to the topic.
  • do not link to the "United States", because that is an article on a very broad topic with no direct connection to supply and demand.
  • definitely do not link "potato", because it is a common term with no particular relationship to the article on supply and demand, beyond its arbitrary use as an example of traded goods in that article.
  • Make sure that the links are directed to the correct articles: in this example, you should link good (economics), not good. Many common dictionary words link to disambiguation pages.

Repeated links[সম্পাদনা]

In general, link only the first occurrence of an item. This is a rule of thumb that has many exceptions, including the following:

  • where a later occurrence of an item is a long way from the first.
  • where the first link was in an infobox or a navbox, or some similar meta-content.
  • long sortable tables, in which each row should be able to stand on its own. (Rows which are near the top of the table when it is sorted according to one column can be far from it when it is sorted according to another one.)

Link specificity[সম্পাদনা]

Always link to the article on the most specific topic appropriate to the context from which you link: it will generally contain more focused information, as well as links to more general topics. (Move your mouse pointer over the blue links in the table below to see the target.)

What you type How it appears Specificity
[[Icelandic alphabet]] Icelandic alphabet Specific
[[Icelandic (language)|Icelandic]] alphabet Icelandic alphabet Related, but less specific
Icelandic [[alphabet]] Icelandic alphabet Unspecific
the [[flag of Tokelau]] the flag of Tokelau Specific
the [[flag]] of [[Tokelau]] the flag of Tokelau Unspecific
[[Requiem (Mozart)|Requiem]] Requiem Specific
[[Requiem]] Requiem Unspecific

In each case the specific link is preferred.

If there is no article about the most specific topic, do one of the following things:

  • If an article on the specific topic does not yet exist, create a redirect page to the article about a more general topic, as described in section টেমপ্লেট:Sectionlink. For example, there currently is no article about the song "Sad Statue" from the album Mezmerize. In the meantime you create Sad Statue which redirects to the article about the album.
  • If there is no article on a more general topic, either, create a red link, but read টেমপ্লেট:Sectionlink below.

When neither a redirect nor a red link appear appropriate, consider linking to a more general article instead. For example, instead of Baroque hairstyles, write Baroque hairstyles, Baroque hairstyles, Baroque hairstyles, or hairstyles of the Baroque, depending on the context.
If an existing article has a section specifically about the topic, you can redirect or link directly to it, by appending a number sign (#) and the name of the section to the article name. For example, Underpromotion is a redirect to Promotion (chess)#Underpromotion, and in the article Quark the link eight gluon types (typed as [[Gluon#Eight gluon colors|eight gluon types]]) links to a specific section in Gluon. When doing this, add a hidden comment to the target section such as <!-- "Quark" links here --> so that someone changing the title of that section can fix the incoming links. (Alternatively, use Template:Anchor in case of a large number of links to the section.)

Techniques[সম্পাদনা]

Redirects[সম্পাদনা]

Let's assume for example you needed a link "poodle", and there was no article for poodles yet. You might want to create a redirect from "poodle" to "dog" as follows: Write the link in the text as if the "poodle" article existed: She owned a [[poodle]] .... When you save or preview this, you will see: She owned a poodle.... Click on the red link to create the redirect page, enter the target article name (in our case, Dog), select that text, and click the "#R" button. This will create the following text: #redirect [[Dog]].

The advantage of redirects over piped links is that they allow us to determine which pages link to the given topic using Special:Whatlinkshere, which in turn allows us to ...

(There is currently no way to apply Whatlinkshere directly to article sections.)

Piped links[সম্পাদনা]

You may want to display a text for a link that is different from the linked article title. This can be achieved with what is called Piped links. Example: [[Henry II of England|Henry II]], which displays as Henry II. However, make sure that it is still clear what the link refers to without having to follow the link. Think about what the reader will believe the link is about. Example: When you use a link such as [[Archery at the 2008 Summer Olympics|Archery]] (which displays as Archery), the reader will expect this link to go to a general article on archery, rather than Archery at the ২০০৮ গ্রীষ্মকালীন অলিম্পিক. The exception is when it is clear from the context that links go to specific articles, as in template:২০০৮ গ্রীষ্মকালীন অলিম্পিক Calendar, where all links go to the article about these specific games.

  • Plurals and other derived names. When forming plurals, you can do so thus: [[apple]]s which includes the final "s" in the link like this: apples. This is easier to type and clearer to read in the source text than [[apple|apples]]. This works not just for "s", but for any words that consist of an article name and some additional letters. For details, see Help:Link.
  • Case sensitivity. Links are not sensitive to initial capitalization, so there is no need to use piping where the only difference between the text and the target is the case of the initial letter (Wikipedia article titles almost always begin with a capital, whereas the linked words in context often do not). However, links are case-sensitive for all but the initial character.
  • Intuitiveness.

Keep piped links as intuitive as possible. Per the Wikipedia:Principle of least astonishment, make sure that the reader knows what to expect when clicking on a link. For example, do not write this: টেমপ্লেট:Xt2 The readers will not see the hidden reference to the parton model unless they click on or hover over the piped particle physics link; in hard copy, the reference to partons is completely lost. Instead, reference the article with an explicit "see also" or by rephrasing: টেমপ্লেট:Xt2

  • Piping and redirects. Per টেমপ্লেট:Sectionlink above, do not use a piped link where it is possible to use a redirected term that fits well within the scope of the text. For example, let's assume the page "Poodle" is a redirect to the page "Dog", and while you're editing some other article, you want to add a link to the word "poodle". You may be tempted to avoid the redirect by directly linking to it with a pipe like this: [[Dog|poodle]]. Instead, write simply [[poodle]] and let the system handle the rest.

Piped links to sections of articles[সম্পাদনা]

Linking to particular sections of articles can be useful, since it can take the reader immediately to the information that is most focused on the original topic. If you decided not to use a redirect, you have to use a piped link, because the format "Article name#Section name", is not good enough for display in an article. The format for a subsection link is [[Article#Section|name of link]]. Please note, section name is case sensitive. For example, to link to the "Culture" subsection of the Oman article, type [[Oman#Culture|culture of Oman]] (which displays as culture of Oman). As noted above, when doing this, add a hidden comment to the target section such as <!-- "Quark" links here --> so that someone changing the title of that section can fix the incoming links. (Alternatively, use {{Anchor}} in case of a large number of links to the section.)

See also Section linking help.

Links to Wikipedia's categories[সম্পাদনা]

Wikipedia has categories of articles like [[Category:Phrases]]; adding this to an article puts it into that category. You can link to a category by putting a colon in front.

For example [[:Category:Phrases]] links to Category:Phrases, and piping can be used: Phrases.

Red links[সম্পাদনা]

An internal link that displays in red points to a page that does not exist by that name. Some red links come about due to errors (misspelling, or failure to check the exact name of the target article); these should be fixed by correcting the spelling, using a piped link or, if appropriate, creating a redirect. However, many red links are perfectly legitimate, serving to point to an article which may exist in the future, and indeed encouraging editors to create such an article.[৪]

Legitimate red links should not be resolved by simply removing the bracket. If a red link is within the context of the article, and it is a topic with the potential to eventually be a neutral, verifiable and encyclopedic article, then the link should be kept. Such links do not have an expiration date, beyond which they must be "fixed". Red links should be removed only if they point to articles that are unlikely ever to be created, such as the names of book chapters, or if they would have little significance in the context of the present article even if they were created.

Red is only the default color for these links for logged-in users, who can change their preferences to select another color.

To make a link more useful to readers when no article currently exists, it may be useful to create a redirect to a relevant existing article or section, or to create a stub for the new article (check similar articles for conventions on naming and categorization).

Checking links as they are created[সম্পাদনা]

One of the most common errors in linking occurs when editors do not check to see whether a link they have created goes to the intended location. This is especially true when a mistake is not obvious to the reader or to other editors. The text of links needs to be exact, and many Wikipedia destinations have a number of similar titles. To avoid such problems, which can be irritating for readers, the following procedure is recommended, especially for editors who are new to creating links.

  1. Carefully key in the link.
  2. Click on "Show preview".
  3. In the display-mode, click on the links to check they go where you intend; if they do not, fix them. If a destination page does not appear to exist, do a quick search to determine whether the article has a differently worded title or the subject is treated in a section of another article. Adjust the link accordingly or leave it as a red link.
  4. Return to the "Show preview" page using your browser's return button.
  5. Click on "Save page".

By following naming conventions, an internal link will be much more likely to lead to an existing article. When there is not yet an article about the subject, a good link will make the creation of a correctly named article much easier for subsequent writers.

Specific cases[সম্পাদনা]

Chronological items[সম্পাদনা]

Month-day linking[সম্পাদনা]

Month-day articles (February 24 and 10 July) should not be linked unless their content is germane (i.e. “relevant and appropriate”) and topical to the subject. Such links should share an important connection with that subject other than that the events occurred on the same date. For example, editors should not link the date (or year) in a sentence such as (from Sydney Opera House): "The Sydney Opera House was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007", because little, if any, of the contents of either June 28 or 2007 are germane to either UNESCO, a World Heritage Site, or the Sydney Opera House.

References to commemorative days (Saint Patrick's Day) are treated as for any other link. Intrinsically chronological articles (1789, January, and 1940s) may themselves contain linked chronological items.

Year linking[সম্পাদনা]

Year articles (1795, 1955, 2007) should not be linked unless they contain information that is germane and topical to the subject matter—that is, the events in the year article should share an important connection other than merely that they occurred in the same year. For instance, Timeline of World War II (1942) may be linked to from another article about WWII, and so too may 1787 in science when writing about a particular development on the metric system in that year. However, the years of birth and death of architect Philip C. Johnson should not be linked, because little, if any, of the contents of 1906 and 2005 are germane to either Johnson or to architecture.

External links[সম্পাদনা]

Wikipedia is not a link collection and an article comprising only links is contrary to the "what Wikipedia is not" policy.

Syntax[সম্পাদনা]

The syntax for referencing a URL is simple. Just enclose it in single brackets with a space between the URL and the text that will be displayed when the page is previewed or saved:

[http://www.example.org Text to display]

The URL must begin with http:// or another common protocol, such as ftp:// or news://. If no protocol is used, the square brackets will display normally – [like this] – and can be used in the standard way.

In addition, putting URLs in plain text with no markup automatically produces a link, for example http://www.example.org/http://www.example.org/. However, this feature may disappear in a future release. Therefore, in cases where you wish to display the URL because it is intrinsically valuable information, it is better to use the short form of the URL (host name) as the optional text: [http://www.example.org/ example.org] produces example.org.

Link titles[সম্পাদনা]

You should not add a descriptive title to an embedded HTML link within an article. Instead, when giving an embedded link as a source within an article, simply enclose the URL in square brackets, like this: [http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1650417,00.html][১]. However, you should add a descriptive title when an external link is offered in the References, Further reading, or External links section. This is done by supplying descriptive text after the URL, separated by a space and enclosing it all in square brackets.

For example, to add a title to a bare URL such as http://en.wikipedia.org/ (this is rendered as http://en.wikipedia.org/), use the following syntax: [http://en.wikipedia.org/ an open-content encyclopedia] (this is rendered as "an open-content encyclopedia").

Generally, URLs are ugly and uninformative; it is better for a meaningful title to be displayed rather than the URL itself. For example, European Space Agency website is much more reader-friendly than http://www.esa.int/export/esaCP/index.html. There may be exceptions where the URL is well known or is the company name. In this case, putting both the URL and a valid title will be more informative: for example, European Space Agency website, www.esa.int.

If the URL is displayed, make it as simple as possible; for example, if the index.html is superfluous, remove it (but be sure to check in preview mode first).

The "printable version" of a page displays all URLs in full, including those given a title, so no information is lost.

URLs as embedded (numbered) links[সম্পাদনা]

Without the optional text, external references appear as automatically numbered links: For example,

[http://en.wikipedia.org/]

is displayed like this: টেমপ্লেট:Xt2

When an embedded HTML link is used to provide an inline source in an article, a numbered link should be used after the punctuation, like this, [২] with a full citation given in the References section. See Wikipedia:Cite sources and Wikipedia:Verifiability for more information.

When placed in the References and External links sections, these links should be expanded with link text, and preferably a full citation, including the name of the article, the author, the journal or newspaper the article appeared in, the date it was published, and the date retrieved.

Position in article[সম্পাদনা]

Embedded links that are used to support information in an article are positioned in the same manner as any other reference in the article, following the usual standards about citation formatting and placement in relation to punctuation.

Links that are not used as sources can be listed in the External links section, like this:

== External links ==
* [http://
* [http://

As with other top-level headings, two equal signs should be used to mark up the external links heading (see Headings elsewhere in the article). External links should always be the last section in an article. It precedes categories and some kinds of navigation templates.

If there is a dispute on the position of an embedded link, consider organizing alphabetically.

Non-English-language sites[সম্পাদনা]

Webpages in English are highly preferred. Linking to non-English pages may still be useful for readers in the following cases:

  • when the website is the subject of the article
  • when linking to pages with maps, diagrams, photos, tables (explain the key terms with the link, so that people who do not know the language can interpret them)
  • when the webpage contains information found on no English-language site of comparable quality, and is used as a citation (or when translations on English-language sites are not authoritative).

If the language is one that most readers could not be expected to recognize, or is for some other reason unclear from the name of the publication or the book/article/page title, consider indicating what language the site is in.

You can also indicate the language by putting a language icon after the link. This is done using Template:Languageicon by typing {{Languageicon|<language code>|<language name>}}. For example, {{Languageicon|es}} displays as: (স্পেনীয়). Alternatively, type {{xx icon}}, where xx is the language code. For example, {{pl icon}} gives: (পোলীয়). See Category:Language icon templates for a list of these templates and the list of ISO 639 codes.

File type and size[সম্পাদনা]

If the link is not to an HTML or PDF file (the latter is identified automatically by the software with an icon like this: [৩]), identify the file type. Useful templates are available: {{DOClink}}, {{RTFlink}}. If a browser plugin is required to view the file, mention that as well.

If the link is to a large file (in the case of HTML, consider the size of the entire page, including the images), a note about that is useful too. Someone with a slow connection may decide not to use it.

Interwiki links[সম্পাদনা]

Linking[সম্পাদনা]

Interwiki links can take the form of:

[[wiktionary:article]] which appears as: wiktionary:article.

The pipe symbol suppresses the prefix:

[[wiktionary:article|]]article.

Adding text after the pipe allows different text:

[[wiktionary:article|Any text]]Any text

Floating boxes[সম্পাদনা]

Floating boxes for links to articles in other Wikimedia Foundation projects such as Wiktionary and Wikiquote can be done with special link templates such as {{Wikiquote|Jimmy Wales}}. These will display as a box with a logo. Similar templates exist for some free content resources that are not run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These boxes are formatted in light green to distinguish them from Wikipedia's official sister projects. A list of such templates can be found at Wikipedia:List of templates linking to other free content projects.

Link maintenance[সম্পাদনা]

Linking and continual change are both central features of Wikipedia; however, continual change makes linking vulnerable to acquired technical faults and the provision of different information from that which was originally intended. This is true of both "outgoing" links (from an article) and "incoming" links (to an article).

  • Outgoing links: These should be checked from time to time for unintended changes that are undesirable; if the opportunity arises to improve their formatting, appropriateness and focus, this should be done.
  • Incoming links: Creating an article will turn blue any existing red links to its title (redlinks are usually created in the hope that an article will eventually be written). Therefore, when creating an article, it is wise to check "What links here" to identify such redlinks, if any, and that they are appropriate.

Notes[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Many, but not all, articles repeat the article title in bold face in the first line of the article. Linking the article to itself produces boldface text; this practice is discouraged as page moves will result in a useless circular link through a redirect. Linking part of the bolded text is also discouraged because it changes the visual effect of bolding; some readers will miss the visual cue which is the purpose of using bold face in the first place.
  2. Dvorak, John C. (এপ্রিল ২০০২)। "Missing Links"PC Magazine 
  3. Units of measurement which are common only in some parts of the English-speaking world need not be linked if they are accompanied by a conversion to units common in the rest of it, as in ১৮ °সে (৬৪ °ফা), as almost all readers of the English Wikipedia would be able to understand at least one of the two measures. Some units of measure, like "ounce" or "pound" can be misinterpreted because they are ambiguous. A link might serve, if a simple statement, "troy ounce", does not.[স্পষ্টকরণ প্রয়োজন] Do not use a link for an ambiguous unit of measure unless a thorough explanation would help the article's context. You would then link "Ounce" or "pound" to the Troy weight or Avoirdupois weight article. For example, in an article specifically on measurement or on units of measurement, links to common units of measurement are useful.
  4. Academic research has suggested that red links may be a driving force in Wikipedia growth; see Diomidis Spinellis and Panagiotis Louridas (2008): The collaborative organization of knowledge. In Communications of the ACM, August 2008, 51(8), 68–73. DOI:10.1145/1378704.1378720. Quote: "Most new articles are created shortly after a corresponding reference to them is entered into the system". See also inflationary hypothesis of Wikipedia growth

See also[সম্পাদনা]

External links[সম্পাদনা]