ফ্রাঙ্কলিন ডি. রুজভেল্ট
ফ্রাঙ্কলিন ডি. রুজভেল্ট
|চিত্র:DR 1944 Color Portrait.jpg|
|মার্কিন যুক্তরাস্ট্রের ৩২-তম রাষ্ট্রপতি|
মার্চ ৪,১৯৩৩ – এপ্রিল ১২, ১৯৪৫
|উত্তরসূরী||হ্যারি এস. ট্রুম্যান|
|৪৪তম নিউইয়র্কের গর্ভনর|
January 1, 1929 – December 31, 1932
|লেফটেন্যান্ট||Herbert H. Lehman|
|উত্তরসূরী||Herbert H. Lehman|
|Assistant Secretary of the Navy|
March 17, 1913 – August 26, 1920
|Member of the New York State Senate|
for the 26th District
January 1, 1911 – March 17, 1913
|পূর্বসূরী||John F. Schlosser|
|উত্তরসূরী||James E. Towner|
|জন্ম||৩০ জানুয়ারি ১৮৮২|
Hyde Park, New York, U.S.
|মৃত্যু||১২ এপ্রিল ১৯৪৫ (বয়স ৬৩)|
ওয়ার্ম স্প্রিং,জর্জিয়া, ইউ.এস
|সমাধিস্থল||Home of FDR National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York|
|সম্পর্ক||See Roosevelt family and Delano family|
|পিতামাতা||James Roosevelt I|
ফ্রাংক্লিন ডেলানো রুজ্ভেল্ট (ইংরেজি: Franklin Delano Roosevelt ফ্র্যাংক্লিন্ ডেলানৌ রৌজ়াভ়েল্ট্ (জানুয়ারি ৩০, ১৮৮২ – এপ্রিল ১২, ১৯৪৫) মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ৩২তম রাষ্ট্রপতি। তিনি চার মেয়াদে ১৯৩৩ থেকে ১৯৪৫ পর্যন্ত ১২ বছর ক্ষমতায় ছিলেন। ডেমোক্র্যাটিক পার্টির নেতা হিসেবে তিনি টানা চারবার প্রেসিডেন্ট নির্বাচনে জয়ী হন এবং বিংশ শতাব্দীর প্রথমভাগে বিশ্ব রাজনীতির একজন কেন্দ্রীয় চরিত্র হয়ে ওঠেন। বিংশ শতকের কুখ্যাত মহামন্দার সময়ে তিনি তাঁর "নতুন নীতি" (new deal)-র মাধ্যমে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রীয় সরকারকে অবধারিত অর্থনৈতিক বিপর্যয় থেকে উদ্ধার করেন। তাঁর প্রবর্তিত নিউ ডিল কোয়ালিশন বিংশ শতাব্দীর তৃতীয় ভাগে আমেরিকায় নব্য উদারপন্থার দিশানির্দেশ করেছিল। তাঁর তৃতীয় ও চতুর্থ দফার শাসনকাল মূলত দ্বিতীয় বিশ্বযুদ্ধকে কেন্দ্র করে আবর্তিত হয়েছিল, এবং শাসনরত অবস্থায় তাঁর মৃত্যুর অব্যবহিত পরেই আমেরিকা বিশ্বযুদ্ধে জয়লাভ করে। নিউ ইয়র্কের হাইড পার্কের প্রখ্যাত রুজভেল্ট পরিবারের সদস্য ফ্রাঙ্কলিন গ্রোটন স্কুল ও হার্ভার্ড কলেজে পড়াশোনার পর কলম্বিয়া ল স্কুল থেকে আইন পাশ করেন ও নিউ ইয়র্ক শহরে আইন ব্যবসা শুরু করেন। ১৯০৫ খ্রিস্টাব্দে তিনি তাঁর সম্পর্কিত বোন ইলিয়ানর রুজভেল্টের সঙ্গে বিবাহবন্ধনে আবদ্ধ হন। তাঁদের ছয় সন্তানের মধ্যে পাঁচজন পরিণত বয়স পর্যন্ত জীবিত ছিলেন। ১৯১০ খ্রিস্টাব্দে তিনি নিউ ইয়র্ক স্টেট সেনেট আসনে জয়ী হন এবং প্রথম বিশ্বযুদ্ধের সময়ে প্রেসিডেন্ট উড্রো উইলসনের অধীনে নৌবাহিনীর সহসচিব হিসেবে কাজ করেন। ১৯২০-র প্রেসিডেন্ট নির্বাচনে তিনি জেমস কক্সের ডেপুটি হিসেবে নির্বাচনে লড়েন কিন্তু কক্স রিপাবলিকান প্রার্থী ওয়ারেন হার্ডিঙের কাজে পরাজিত হন। ১৯২১ সালে রুজভেল্ট পক্ষাঘাতগ্রস্ত হন। পোলিও রোগের কারণে তার পা দুটো স্থায়ীভাবে প্যারালাইজড হয়ে যায়। চিকিৎসা চলাকালীন সময়ে রুজভেল্ট জর্জিয়ার ওয়ার্ম স্প্রিংসে একটি পোলিও নিরাময় কেন্দ্র গড়ে তোলেন৷ হাঁটতে না পারার অসহায়তা নিয়েও রুজভেল্ট ১৯২৮ সালে নিউইয়র্কের নির্বাচনে গভর্নর নিয়োজিত হয়ে সরকারি কার্যালয়ে ফিরে আসেন। ১৯২৯ থেকে ১৯৩৩ পর্যন্ত তিনি গভর্নরের দায়িত্ব পালন করেন। মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্রে বিরাজমান অর্থনৈতিক সমস্যা মোকাবেলায় কার্যকর পদক্ষেপ গ্রহণ করেন। ১৯৩২ এর রাষ্ট্রপতি নির্বাচনে রুজভেল্ট তার রিপাবলিকান প্রতিদ্বন্দ্বী হারবার্ট হুবার কে পরাজিত করেন। ঘোর অর্থনৈতিক মন্দার মধ্যে তিনি প্রেসিডেন্টের দায়িত্ব পালন শুরু করেন৷ During the first 100 days of the 73rd U.S. Congress, he spearheaded unprecedented federal legislative productivity. Roosevelt called for the creation of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform. Within his first year, he began implementing these policies through a series of executive orders and federal legislation collectively called the New Deal. Many New Deal programs provided relief to the unemployed such as the National Recovery Administration. Several New Deal programs and federal laws such as the Agricultural Adjustment Act provided relief to farmers. Roosevelt also instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance, communications, and labor. In addition to the economy, Roosevelt sought to find a compromise on Prohibition with the urban and rural wings of the Democratic Party. After campaigning on a platform to repeal it, Roosevelt implemented the Beer Permit Act of 1933 and enforced the 21st amendment. Tax revenue collected from alcohol sales would go to public works as part of the New Deal. Roosevelt frequently used radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and became the first American president to be televised. The economy improved rapidly during Roosevelt's first term and he won re-election in 1936, in one of the most lopsided victories in American history. Despite the popularity of the New Deal among supporters of Roosevelt, from 1936 onwards, New Deal legislation was frequently struck down by the US Supreme Court, which maintained a conservative bent. The dispute between Roosevelt and the Court resulted in Roosevelt lobbying for the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (or "court packing plan"), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court. The bill was blocked by the newly formed bipartisan Conservative Coalition, which also sought to prevent further New Deal legislation. During the recession of 1937–1938, Roosevelt launched a rhetorical campaign against big business and monopoly power in the United States. Other major 1930s legislation and agencies implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security, and the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940 for his third term, making him the only U.S. president to serve for more than two terms. By 1939 another World War was on the horizon which prompted the United States to respond by passing a series of laws affirming neutrality and rejecting intervention. Despite this, President Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom, and eventually the Soviet Union. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a congressional declaration of war against Japan. On December 11 Japan's allies, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States. In response, the US formally joined the Allies and entered the European theater of war. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with very strong national support, he worked closely with British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet general secretary Joseph Stalin, and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, initiating the Lend-Lease program and making the defeat of Germany first a priority over that of Japan. His administration co-ordinated massive wartime efforts such as the construction of the Pentagon and the Manhattan Project, which saw the creation of the atomic bomb. His foreign policy mirrored Wilsonian ideals which prompted Roosevelt to make his highest postwar priority being the establishment of the United Nations. Roosevelt expected the United Nations to replace the now defunct League of Nations and to be led by Washington, Moscow, London, and Nanjing.[a] These states collectively called the Big Four would work to resolve all major world problems. It was under his wartime leadership that the United States became a superpower on the world stage.
Roosevelt won re-election in the 1944 presidential election on his post-war recovery platform. His physical health began declining during the later war years, and less than three months into his fourth term, Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Vice President Harry S. Truman assumed office as president and oversaw the acceptance of surrender by the Axis powers. Since his death, several of Roosevelt's actions have come under substantial criticism, such as the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans in concentration camps. Nevertheless, he is consistently ranked by scholars, political scientists and historians as one of the greatest presidents in American history.
প্রাথমিক রাজনৈতিক জীবন[সম্পাদনা]
New York state senator (1910–1913)[সম্পাদনা]
Roosevelt cared little for the practice of law and told friends he planned to enter politics. Despite his admiration for cousin Theodore, Franklin shared his father's bond with the Democratic Party, and in preparation for the 1910 elections, the party recruited Roosevelt to run for a seat in the New York State Assembly. Roosevelt was a compelling recruit for the party. He had the personality and energy for campaigning, and he had the money to pay for his own campaign. But Roosevelt's campaign for the state assembly ended after the Democratic incumbent, Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler, chose to seek re-election. Rather than putting his political hopes on hold, Roosevelt ran for a seat in the state senate. The senate district, located in Dutchess, Columbia, and Putnam, was strongly Republican. Roosevelt feared that opposition from Theodore could end his campaign, but Theodore encouraged his candidacy despite their party differences. Acting as his own campaign manager, Roosevelt traveled throughout the senate district via automobile at a time when few could afford a car. Due to his aggressive campaign, his name recognition in the Hudson Valley, and the Democratic landslide in the 1910 United States elections, Roosevelt won a surprising victory.
Despite short legislative sessions, Roosevelt treated his new position as a full-time career. Taking his seat on January 1, 1911, Roosevelt soon became the leader of a group of "Insurgents" in opposition to the Tammany Hall machine that dominated the state Democratic Party. In the 1911 U.S. Senate election, which was determined in a joint session of the New York state legislature,[ক] Roosevelt and nineteen other Democrats caused a prolonged deadlock by opposing a series of Tammany-backed candidates. Tammany threw its backing behind James A. O'Gorman, a highly regarded judge whom Roosevelt found acceptable, and O'Gorman won the election in late March. Roosevelt in the process became a popular figure among New York Democrats. News articles and cartoons depicted "the second coming of a Roosevelt", sending "cold shivers down the spine of Tammany".
Roosevelt opposed Tammany Hall by supporting New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson's successful bid for the 1912 Democratic nomination. The election became a three-way contest when Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican Party to launch a third party campaign against Wilson and sitting Republican President William Howard Taft. Franklin's decision to back Wilson over his cousin in the general election alienated some of his family, except Theodore. Roosevelt overcame a bout of typhoid fever, and with help from journalist Louis McHenry Howe, he was re-elected in the 1912 elections. After the election, he served as chairman of the Agriculture Committee, and his success with farm and labor bills was a precursor to his New Deal policies years later. He had then become more consistently progressive, in support of labor and social welfare programs.
Paralytic illness and political comeback (1921–1928)[সম্পাদনা]
After the election, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he practiced law and served as a vice president of the Fidelity and Deposit Company. He also sought to build support for a political comeback in the 1922 elections, but his career was derailed by illness. While the Roosevelts were vacationing at Campobello Island in August 1921, he fell ill. His main symptoms were fever; symmetric, ascending paralysis; facial paralysis; bowel and bladder dysfunction; numbness and hyperesthesia; and a descending pattern of recovery. Roosevelt was left permanently paralyzed from the waist down and was diagnosed with polio. Historians have noted a 2003 study strongly favoring a diagnosis of Guillain–Barré syndrome, but have continued to describe his paralysis according to the initial diagnosis.
Though his mother favored his retirement from public life, Roosevelt, his wife, and Roosevelt's close friend and adviser, Louis Howe, were all determined that he continue his political career. He convinced many people that he was improving, which he believed to be essential prior to run for public office again. He laboriously taught himself to walk short distances while wearing iron braces on his hips and legs by swiveling his torso, supporting himself with a cane. He was careful never to be seen using his wheelchair in public, and great care was taken to prevent any portrayal in the press that would highlight his disability. However, his disability was well known before and during his presidency and became a major part of his image. He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons.
Beginning in 1925, Roosevelt spent most of his time in the Southern United States, at first on his houseboat, the Larooco. Intrigued by the potential benefits of hydrotherapy, he established a rehabilitation center at Warm Springs, Georgia, in 1926. To create the rehabilitation center, he assembled a staff of physical therapists and used most of his inheritance to purchase the Merriweather Inn. In 1938, he founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, leading to the development of polio vaccines.
Roosevelt maintained contacts with the Democratic Party during the 1920s, and he remained active in New York politics while also establishing contacts in the South, particularly in Georgia. He issued an open letter endorsing Al Smith's successful campaign in New York's 1922 gubernatorial election, which both aided Smith and showed Roosevelt's continuing relevance as a political figure. Roosevelt and Smith came from different backgrounds and never fully trusted one another, but Roosevelt supported Smith's progressive policies, while Smith was happy to have the backing of the prominent and well-respected Roosevelt.
Roosevelt gave presidential nominating speeches for Smith at the 1924 and 1928 Democratic National Conventions; the speech at the 1924 convention marked a return to public life following his illness and convalescence. That year, the Democrats were badly divided between an urban wing, led by Smith, and a conservative, rural wing, led by William Gibbs McAdoo. On the 101st ballot, the nomination went to John W. Davis, a compromise candidate who suffered a landslide defeat in the 1924 presidential election. Like many others throughout the United States, Roosevelt did not abstain from alcohol during the Prohibition era, but publicly he sought to find a compromise on Prohibition acceptable to both wings of the party.
In 1925, Smith appointed Roosevelt to the Taconic State Park Commission, and his fellow commissioners chose him as chairman. In this role, he came into conflict with Robert Moses, a Smith protégé, who was the primary force behind the Long Island State Park Commission and the New York State Council of Parks. Roosevelt accused Moses of using the name recognition of prominent individuals including Roosevelt to win political support for state parks, but then diverting funds to the ones Moses favored on Long Island, while Moses worked to block the appointment of Howe to a salaried position as the Taconic commission's secretary. Roosevelt served on the commission until the end of 1928, and his contentious relationship with Moses continued as their careers progressed.
Peace was the catchword of the 1920s, and in 1923 Edward Bok established the $100,000 American Peace Award for the best plan to bring peace to the world. Roosevelt had leisure time and interest, and he drafted a plan for the contest. He never submitted it because his wife Eleanor Roosevelt was selected as a judge for the prize. His plan called for a new world organization that would replace the League of Nations. Although Roosevelt had been the vice-presidential candidate on the Democratic ticket of 1920 that supported the League of Nations, by 1924 he was ready to scrap it. His draft of a "Society of Nations" accepted the reservations proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge in the 1919 Senate debate. The new Society would not become involved in the Western Hemisphere, where the Monroe doctrine held sway. It would not have any control over military forces. Although Roosevelt's plan was never made public, he thought about the problem a great deal and incorporated some of his 1924 ideas into the design for the United Nations in 1944–1945.
Governor of New York (1929–1932)[সম্পাদনা]
Smith, the Democratic presidential nominee in the 1928 election, asked Roosevelt to run for governor of New York in the 1928 state election. Roosevelt initially resisted, as he was reluctant to leave Warm Springs and feared a Republican landslide in 1928. Party leaders eventually convinced him only he could defeat the Republican gubernatorial nominee, New York Attorney General Albert Ottinger. He won the party's gubernatorial nomination by acclamation and again turned to Howe to lead his campaign. Roosevelt was also joined on the campaign trail by associates Samuel Rosenman, Frances Perkins, and James Farley. While Smith lost the presidency in a landslide, and was defeated in his home state, Roosevelt was elected governor by a one-percent margin, and became a contender in the next presidential election.
Roosevelt proposed the construction of hydroelectric power plants and addressed the ongoing farm crisis of the 1920s. Relations between Roosevelt and Smith suffered after he chose not to retain key Smith appointees like Moses. He and his wife Eleanor established an understanding for the rest of his career; she would dutifully serve as the governor's wife but would also be free to pursue her own agenda and interests. He also began holding "fireside chats", in which he directly addressed his constituents via radio, often pressuring the New York State Legislature to advance his agenda.
In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred, and with it came the Great Depression in the United States. Roosevelt saw the seriousness of the situation and established a state employment commission. He also became the first governor to publicly endorse the idea of unemployment insurance.
When Roosevelt began his run for a second term in May 1930, he reiterated his doctrine from the campaign two years before: "that progressive government by its very terms must be a living and growing thing, that the battle for it is never-ending and that if we let up for one single moment or one single year, not merely do we stand still but we fall back in the march of civilization." He ran on a platform that called for aid to farmers, full employment, unemployment insurance, and old-age pensions. He was elected to a second term by a 14% margin.
Roosevelt proposed an economic relief package and the establishment of the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration to distribute those funds. Led first by Jesse I. Straus and then by Harry Hopkins, the agency assisted well over one-third of New York's population between 1932 and 1938. Roosevelt also began an investigation into corruption in New York City among the judiciary, the police force, and organized crime, prompting the creation of the Seabury Commission. The Seabury investigations exposed an extortion ring, led many public officials to be removed from office, and made the decline of Tammany Hall inevitable.
Roosevelt supported reforestation with the Hewitt Amendment in 1931, which gave birth to New York's State Forest system.
1932 presidential election[সম্পাদনা]
As the 1932 presidential election approached, Roosevelt turned his attention to national politics, established a campaign team led by Howe and Farley, and a "brain trust" of policy advisers, primarily composed of Columbia University and Harvard University professors. There were some who were not so sanguine about his chances, such as Walter Lippmann, the dean of political commentators, who observed of Roosevelt: "He is a pleasant man who, without any important qualifications for the office, would very much like to be president."
However, Roosevelt's efforts as governor to address the effects of the depression in his own state established him as the front-runner for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. Roosevelt rallied the progressive supporters of the Wilson administration while also appealing to many conservatives, establishing himself as the leading candidate in the South and West. The chief opposition to Roosevelt's candidacy came from Northeastern conservatives, Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas and Al Smith, the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee.
Roosevelt entered the convention with a delegate lead due to his success in the 1932 Democratic primaries, but most delegates entered the convention unbound to any particular candidate. On the first presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt received the votes of more than half but less than two-thirds of the delegates, with Smith finishing in a distant second place. Roosevelt then promised the vice-presidential nomination to Garner, who controlled the votes of Texas and California; Garner threw his support behind Roosevelt after the third ballot, and Roosevelt clinched the nomination on the fourth ballot. Roosevelt flew in from New York to Chicago after learning that he had won the nomination, becoming the first major-party presidential nominee to accept the nomination in person. His appearance was essential, to show himself as vigorous, despite the ravaging disease that disabled him physically.
In his acceptance speech, Roosevelt declared, "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people... This is more than a political campaign. It is a call to arms." Roosevelt promised securities regulation, tariff reduction, farm relief, government-funded public works, and other government actions to address the Great Depression. Reflecting changing public opinion, the Democratic platform included a call for the repeal of Prohibition; Roosevelt himself had not taken a public stand on the issue prior to the convention but promised to uphold the party platform. Otherwise, Roosevelt's primary campaign strategy was one of caution, intent upon avoiding mistakes that would distract from Hoover's failings on the economy. His statements attacked the incumbent and included no other specific policies or programs.
After the convention, Roosevelt won endorsements from several progressive Republicans, including George W. Norris, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette Jr. He also reconciled with the party's conservative wing, and even Al Smith was persuaded to support the Democratic ticket. Hoover's handling of the Bonus Army further damaged the incumbent's popularity, as newspapers across the country criticized the use of force to disperse assembled veterans.
Roosevelt won 57% of the popular vote and carried all but six states. Historians and political scientists consider the 1932–36 elections to be a political realignment. Roosevelt's victory was enabled by the creation of the New Deal coalition, small farmers, the Southern whites, Catholics, big city political machines, labor unions, northern African Americans (southern ones were still disfranchised), Jews, intellectuals, and political liberals. The creation of the New Deal coalition transformed American politics and started what political scientists call the "New Deal Party System" or the Fifth Party System. Between the Civil War and 1929, Democrats had rarely controlled both houses of Congress and had won just four of seventeen presidential elections; from 1932 to 1979, Democrats won eight of twelve presidential elections and generally controlled both houses of Congress.
প্রথম জীবন ও বিবাহ[সম্পাদনা]
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. His parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy, established New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roosevelt's paternal ancestor migrated to New Amsterdam in the 17th century, and the Roosevelts succeeded as merchants and landowners. The Delano family patriarch, Philip Delano, traveled to the New World on the Fortune in 1621, and the Delanos thrived as merchants and shipbuilders in Massachusetts. Franklin had a half-brother, James Roosevelt "Rosy" Roosevelt, from his father's previous marriage. Roosevelt's father, a prominent Bourbon Democrat, once took Franklin to meet President Grover Cleveland, who said to him: "My little man, I am making a strange wish for you. It is that you may never be President of the United States." Franklin's mother, the dominant influence in his early years, once declared, "My son Franklin is a Delano, not a Roosevelt at all." James, who was 54 when Franklin was born, was considered by some as a remote father, though biographer James MacGregor Burns indicates James interacted with his son more than was typical at the time.
শিক্ষা ও প্রাথমিক কর্মজীবন[সম্পাদনা]
As a child, Roosevelt learned to ride, shoot, and sail; he also learned to play polo, tennis, and golf. Frequent trips to Europe—beginning at age two and from age seven to fifteen—helped Roosevelt become conversant in German and French. Except for attending public school in Germany at age nine, Roosevelt was home-schooled by tutors until age 14. He then attended Groton School, an Episcopal boarding school in Groton, Massachusetts. He was not among the more popular Groton students, who were better athletes and had rebellious streaks. Its headmaster, Endicott Peabody, preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service. Peabody remained a strong influence throughout Roosevelt's life, officiating at his wedding and visiting him as president.
Like most of his Groton classmates, Roosevelt went to Harvard College. He was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity and the Fly Club, and served as a school cheerleader. Roosevelt was relatively undistinguished as a student or athlete, but he became editor-in-chief of The Harvard Crimson daily newspaper, a position that required ambition, energy, and the ability to manage others. He later said, "I took economics courses in college for four years, and everything I was taught was wrong."
Roosevelt's father died in 1900, causing great distress for him. The following year, Roosevelt's fifth cousin Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States. Theodore's vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him Franklin's role model and hero. Franklin graduated from Harvard in 1903 with an A.B. in history. He entered Columbia Law School in 1904 but dropped out in 1907 after passing the New York Bar Examination.[গ] In 1908, he took a job with the prestigious law firm of Carter Ledyard & Milburn, working in the firm's admiralty law division.
বিবাহ, পরিবার ও অন্যান্য সম্পর্ক[সম্পাদনা]
During his second year of college, he met and proposed to Boston heiress Alice Sohier, who turned him down. Franklin then began courting his child-acquaintance and fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, a niece of Theodore Roosevelt. In 1903 Franklin proposed to Eleanor, and after resistance from his mother, they were married on March 17, 1905. Eleanor's father, Elliott, was deceased, and her uncle Theodore, then the president, gave away the bride. The young couple moved into Springwood, and Franklin and Sara Roosevelt also provided a townhouse for the couple in New York City, where Sara built a house alongside for herself. Eleanor never felt at home in the houses at Hyde Park or New York, but she loved the family's vacation home on Campobello Island, which Sara also gave the couple. Burns indicates young Roosevelt was self-assured and at ease in the upper class, while Eleanor was then shy and disliked social life, and initially stayed home to raise their children. As his father had, Franklin left the raising of the children to his wife, and Eleanor delegated it to caregivers. She later said she knew "absolutely nothing about handling or feeding a baby." Although Eleanor thought sex was "an ordeal to be endured", she and Franklin had six children. Anna, James, and Elliott were born in 1906, 1907, and 1910, respectively. The couple's second son, Franklin, died in infancy in 1909. Another son, also named Franklin, was born in 1914, and the youngest child, John, was born in 1916.
Roosevelt had several extra-marital affairs, including with Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer, soon after she was hired in 1914, and discovered by Eleanor in 1918. Franklin contemplated divorcing Eleanor, but Sara objected, and Lucy would not marry a divorced man with five children. Franklin and Eleanor remained married, and Roosevelt promised never to see Lucy again. Eleanor never forgave him, and their marriage became more of a political partnership. Eleanor soon established a separate home in Hyde Park at Val-Kill, and devoted herself to social and political causes independent of her husband. The emotional break in their marriage was so severe that when Roosevelt asked Eleanor in 1942—in light of his failing health—to come back home and live with him again, she refused. He was not always aware of when she visited the White House and for some time she could not easily reach him on the telephone without his secretary's help; Roosevelt, in turn, did not visit Eleanor's New York City apartment until late 1944.
Franklin broke his promise to Eleanor as he and Lucy maintained a formal correspondence, and began seeing each other again in 1941 or earlier. Roosevelt's son Elliott claimed that his father had a 20-year affair with his private secretary, Marguerite "Missy" LeHand. Another son, James, stated that "there is a real possibility that a romantic relationship existed" between his father and Crown Princess Märtha of Norway, who resided in the White House during part of World War II. Aides began to refer to her at the time as "the president's girlfriend", and gossip linking the two romantically appeared in the newspapers.
- ↑ Frank R. Abate (১৯৯৯)। The Oxford Desk Dictionary of People and Places। পৃষ্ঠা 329।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 58–60।
- ↑ ক খ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 41।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 60–62।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 60–64।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 65।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 65–66।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 202–03।
- ↑ ক খ Burns 1956, পৃ. 34।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 68–69।
- ↑ Brands 2009, পৃ. 57–60।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 205–06।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 49।
- ↑ Black 2005, পৃ. 62–63।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 44–46।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 43।
- ↑ ক খ Smith 2007, পৃ. 184–85।
- ↑ Goldman AS, Schmalstieg EJ, Freeman DH, Goldman DA, Schmalstieg FC (২০০৩)। "What was the cause of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's paralytic illness?" (পিডিএফ)। Journal of Medical Biography। 11 (4): 232–40। এসটুসিআইডি 39957366। ডিওআই:10.1177/096777200301100412। পিএমআইডি 14562158। ২০১২-১১-৩০ তারিখে মূল (পিডিএফ) থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জুলাই ৪, ২০১৭।
- ↑ Alter 2006, পৃ. 355।
- ↑ Lomazow, Steven; Fettmann, Eric (২০১০)। FDR's Deadly Secret। পৃষ্ঠা 27।
- ↑ Rose, David M. (২০১৬)। Friends and Partners: The Legacy of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Basil O'Connor in the History of Polio। পৃষ্ঠা 179।
- ↑ Wooten, Heather Green (২০০৯)। The Polio Years in Texas। পৃষ্ঠা 192।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 195–96।
- ↑ Rowley 2010, পৃ. 125।
- ↑ Rowley 2010, পৃ. 120।
- ↑ Ward ও Burns 2014, পৃ. 332।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 220।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 213–14।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 215–19।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 255–56।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 87–88।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 87–96।
- ↑ Morgan 1985, পৃ. 267, 269–72, 286–87।
- ↑ Black 2005, পৃ. 160–67।
- ↑ ক খ গ ঘ Caro 1974, পৃ. 289–91।
- ↑ F. Roosevelt, E. Roosevelt, পৃ. 21।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 231।
- ↑ Conrad Black, Franklin Delano Roosevelt: champion of freedom (Hachette UK, 2012) p 160.
- ↑ Selig Adler, The isolationist impulse: its 20th-century reaction (1957) pp 200–201.
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 100।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 96–98।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 223–25।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 225–28।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 101।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 229।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 237–38।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 230–33।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 235–37।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 238–39।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 240–41।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 242–43।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 119–20।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 243–44।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 121।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 250–52।
- ↑ Allen, Oliver E. (১৯৯৩)। The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall। Addison-Wesley Publishing Company। পৃষ্ঠা 233–250। আইএসবিএন 978-0-201-62463-2।
- ↑ "History Of State Forest Program – NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation"। dec.ny.gov। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জুন ২৮, ২০২১।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 261–63।
- ↑ ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ Leuchtenburg, William E. (অক্টোবর ৪, ২০১৬)। "FDR: Campaigns and Elections"। Univ. of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ২৮, ২০২২।
- ↑ Brands 2009, পৃ. 232–36, 246–51।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 139।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 276–77।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 266–67।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 278।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 279।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 282–84।
- ↑ Leuchtenburg 1963, পৃ. 183–96।
- ↑ Sternsher 1975, পৃ. 127–49।
- ↑ Campbell 2006, পৃ. 127–49।
- ↑ Maglaty, Jeanne (এপ্রিল ৭, ২০১১)। "When Did Girls Start Wearing Pink?"। Smithsonian.com।
- ↑ ক খ Burns 1956, পৃ. 7।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 18।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 19।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 5–6।
- ↑ Leuchtenburg 2015, পৃ. 16।
- ↑ Lash 1971, পৃ. 111।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 4।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 110।
- ↑ Black 2005, পৃ. 21।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 20–25।
- ↑ "FDR Biography-The Early Years"। Roosevely Library and Museum। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ২৫, ২০২২।
- ↑ ক খ গ ঘ Leuchtenburg, William E. (সেপ্টেম্বর ২৬, ২০১৬)। "FDR: Life Before the Presidency"। Univ. of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ২৫, ২০২২।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 16।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 174।
- ↑ "Family of Wealth Gave Advantages"। The New York Times। এপ্রিল ১৫, ১৯৪৫। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ডিসেম্বর ২০, ২০১২।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 176।
- ↑ "Almanac: The 1st cheerleader"। CBS News। নভেম্বর ২, ২০১৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ডিসেম্বর ১, ২০১৯।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 175।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 18, 20।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 28–29।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 24।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 28।
- ↑ "Presidents Roosevelt Honored With Posthumous Columbia Degrees"। New York Sun। সেপ্টেম্বর ২৬, ২০০৮। সংগ্রহের তারিখ এপ্রিল ৬, ২০১৮।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 38–39।
- ↑ Rowley 2010, পৃ. 3–6।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 26।
- ↑ Dallek 2017, পৃ. 35–36।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 54–55।
- ↑ Burns 1956, পৃ. 77–79।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 57–58।
- ↑ Winkler 2006, পৃ. 19–20।
- ↑ Abate, Frank R. (১৯৯৯)। The Oxford Desk Dictionary of People and Places। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 329। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-513872-6।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 153।
- ↑ Smith 2007, পৃ. 160।
- ↑ Winkler 2006, পৃ. 28, 38, 48–49।
- ↑ Winkler 2006, পৃ. 202–03।
- ↑ Gunther 1950, পৃ. 195।
- ↑ McGrath, Charles (এপ্রিল ২০, ২০০৮)। "No End of the Affair"। The New York Times।
- ↑ "Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd"। Eleanor Roosevelt Papers। মার্চ ৪, ২০১০ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ফেব্রুয়ারি ৭, ২০১০।
- ↑ Tully 2005, পৃ. 340।
- ↑ Goodwin 1995, পৃ. 153।
- ↑ Rowley 2010, পৃ. 254।
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উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: "lower-alpha" নামক গ্রুপের জন্য
<ref> ট্যাগ রয়েছে, কিন্তু এর জন্য কোন সঙ্গতিপূর্ণ
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