সাহায্য:আধ্বব

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
(সাহায্য:আইপিএ থেকে পুনর্নির্দেশিত)
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন
পরিচ্ছেদসমূহ: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  সহায়ক চিহ্ন 

প্রধান প্রতীকের তালিকা[সম্পাদনা]

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

প্রতীক উদাহরণ বর্ণনা
A
[a] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) German Mann, French gare For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
[ä] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 他 tā, American English father, Spanish casa, French patte
[ɐ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ⟨ʌ⟩.)
[ɑ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP father, French pâte, Dutch bad
[ɑ̃] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
[ɒ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
[ʌ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
[æ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP cat
B
[b] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English babble
[ɓ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
[β] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children", Korean 무궁화 [muɡuŋβwa̠] mugunghwa Like [b], but with the lips not quite closed.
[ʙ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Nias simbi [siʙi] "lower jaw" Sputtering.
C
[c] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
[ç] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
[ɕ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
[ɔ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under O
D
[d] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English dad
[ɗ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
[ɖ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ð] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English the, bathe
[dz] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English adds, Italian zero
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English judge
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
[e] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish fe; French clé, German Klee Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
[ɘ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Australian English bird
[ə] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
[ɚ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English runner
[ɛ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English bet
[ɛ̃] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French Saint-Étienne, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ].
[ɜ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP bird (long)
[ɝ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English bird
F
[f] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English fun
[ɟ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under J
[ʄ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under J
G
[ɡ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
[ɠ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
[ɢ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi.
[ʒ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Z English beige.
H
[h] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English house
[ɦ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English ahead, when said quickly.
[ʰ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
[ħ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Arabic টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
[ɥ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Y
[ɮ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under L
I
[i] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English sea, French ville, Spanish Valladolid
[ɪ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English sit
[ɨ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
[j] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ʲ] In Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
[ʝ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
[ɟ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
[ʄ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
[k] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English kick, skip
L
[l] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English leaf
[ɫ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
[ɬ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
[ɭ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɺ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
[ɮ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
[m] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English mime
[ɱ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ɯ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under W
[ʍ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under W
N
[n] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English nun
[ŋ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English sing, Māori nga
[ɲ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly).
[ɳ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɴ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
[o] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish no, French eau, German Boden Somewhat reminiscent of American English no.
[ɔ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) German Oldenburg, French Garonne
[ɔ̃] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French Lyon, son Nasalized [ɔ].
[ø] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French feu, bœufs, German Goethe Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
[ɵ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Dutch hut, French je, Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. The Dutch vowel is often transcribed with ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩, whereas the French vowel is typically transcribed with ⟨ə⟩.
[œ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
[œ̃] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
[ɶ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten)
[θ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Others
[ɸ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Others
P
[p] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English pip
Q
[q] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Arabic টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
[r] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.)
[ɾ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
[ʀ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
[ɽ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
[ɹ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) RP borrow
[ɻ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
[ʁ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French Paris, German Riemann (some dialects) Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
[s] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English sass
[ʃ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English shoe
[ʂ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
[t] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English tot, stop
[ʈ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ts] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English cats, Russian царь tsar
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English church
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 北京 Běijīng (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten), Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
[u] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) American English food, French vous "you", German Schumacher
[ʊ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English foot, German Bundesrepublik
[ʉ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ɥ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Y
[ɯ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under W
V
[v] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English verve
[ʋ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
[ɤ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Y
[ɣ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under Y
[ʌ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under A
W
[w] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English wow
[ʷ] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, as in English rain
[ʍ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
[ɯ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Turkish kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
[ɰ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Spanish agua
X
[x] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
[χ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
[y] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French rue, German Bülow Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ʏ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) German Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
[ɣ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Arabic টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang ghālī and Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
[ɤ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Mandarin 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ʎ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
[ɥ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
[z] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English zoo
[ʒ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English vision, French journal
[ʑ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) old-styled Russian позже [ˈpoʑːe] "later", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
[ʐ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɮ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) see under L
Others
[θ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English thigh, bath
[ɸ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
[ʔ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩].
[ʕ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Arabic টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang ʻarabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
[ǀ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
[ǁ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
[ǃ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ].
[ʘ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) ǂ’Amkoe ʘoa "two" Like a kissing sound.
[ǂ] (এই শব্দ সম্পর্কেlisten) Khoekhoe ǂgā-amǃnâ [ǂààʔám̀ᵑǃã̀ã̀] "to put in the mouth" Like an imitation of a chewing sound.

সহায়ক চিহ্ন[সম্পাদনা]

বহু চিহ্ন বর্ণের উপরে, নিচে, আগে বা পরে যোগ করা যেতে পারে। এখানে a বর্ণের সাথে এই চিহ্নগুলিকে ব্যবহার করে দেখানো হয়েছে। সম্পূর্ণ তালিকার জন্য দেখুন আন্তর্জাতিক ধ্বনিমূলক বর্ণমালা § সহায়ক চিহ্ন

প্রতীক উদাহরণ বর্ণনা
বর্ণের উপর ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang.
[ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back.
বর্ণের নিচে ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[n̥] English boy [b̥ɔɪ̯], doe [d̥oʊ̯]

(see also)

Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
বর্ণের পাশে ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Ejective. Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ˈa] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[.] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

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