দুঃখ (বৌদ্ধ ধর্ম)

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
সরাসরি যাও: পরিভ্রমণ, অনুসন্ধান

দুঃখ
পালি: दुक्ख
সংস্কৃত: दुःख
বর্মী: ဒုက္ခ
(আইপিএ: [doʊʔkʰa̰])
চীনা:
(pinyin)
জাপানী:
(rōmaji: ku)
কোরীয়:
(ko)
সিংহলি: දුක්ඛ සත්‍යය
তিব্বতী: སྡུག་བསྔལ།
(Wylie: sdug bsngal;
THL: dukngal
)
ভিয়েতনামী: khổ
Glossary of Buddhism

দুঃখ (পালি: दुक्ख, সংস্কৃত: दुःख) বৌদ্ধ ধর্মের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ দৃষ্টিভঙ্গী। দুঃখ সম্বন্ধীয় বৌদ্ধ ধর্মের সমস্ত সুত্র চতুরার্য সত্যের ওপর ভিত্তি করে তৈরী হয়েছে। চতুরার্য সত্য তত্ত্বে দুঃখ প্রথম সত্য রূপে পরিগণিত হয়। এছাড়াও ত্রিলক্ষণের এক লক্ষণ হল দুঃখ।

বাস্তববাদী তত্ত্ব[সম্পাদনা]

বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে দুঃখ জীবনের নিরাশাবাদী দৃষ্টিভঙ্গীকে দর্শায় না। বরং মানব অবস্থার বাস্তববাদী ও প্রায়োগিক তত্ত্বকে নির্দেশ করে। এই তত্ত্বে এই বাস্তব চিত্রকে স্বীকার করে নেওয়া হয় যে, সমস্ত জীবজগতের জীবনের কোন না কোন সময়ে দুঃখ ও যন্ত্রণার অভিজ্ঞতা না লাভ করা ছাড়া কোন উপায় নেই।[১][n ১] গৌতম বুদ্ধ স্বীকার করে নিয়েছিলেন যে, জগতে সুখ ও দুঃখ উভয়েরই অস্তিত্ব বর্তমান, কিন্তু তিনি এই শিক্ষাও দেন যে, সুখ কখনোই চিরস্থায়ী বরং তা সর্বদা পরিবর্তনশীল। সুখের এই পরিবর্তনশীল চরিত্রের জন্যই জীবনে চাহিদার পূরণ হয় না ও দুঃখের সৃষ্টি হয়। সেই কারণে এই সত্য না জানা পর্যন্ত জীবের দুঃখ থেকে মুক্তিলাভ সম্ভব নয়।[৭][১০]

প্রকারভেদ[সম্পাদনা]

বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে দুঃখের তিন প্রকার বিভাগের উল্লেখ রয়েছে। সেগুলি হল- দুঃখ দুঃখ, বিপরিণাম দুঃখ এবং সংস্কার দুঃখ।[n ২][১][১১][১২][১৩][১৪][১৫][web ৪][web ৫][web ৬][web ৭]

দুঃখ দুঃখ[সম্পাদনা]

জন্ম, জরা, ব্যাধি এবং মৃত্যুর সঙ্গে সম্পর্কিত দৈহিক ও মানসিক কষ্ট এবং চাহিদা পূরণে নিরাশা থেকে দুঃখ দুঃখ বা সাধারণ দুঃখের জন্ম হয়। এই দুঃখকে বুঝতে গেলে কোনরকম বিশ্লেষণের প্রয়োজন পড়েনা।[n ৩]

বিপরিণাম দুঃখ[সম্পাদনা]

পরিবর্তনশীলতা ও অচিরস্থায়ীতা থেকে বিপরিণাম দুঃখের জন্ম হয়। লক্ষ্য পূরণের দুশ্চিন্তা এবং অপ্রাপ্তির ক্ষোভ বিপরিণাম দুঃখের অন্তর্গত। এই দুঃখ সম্বন্ধে জানতে গেলে বিশ্লেষণ প্রয়োজন বলে সাধারণ দুঃখের সঙ্গে একে আলাদা করা হয়। জীবনের কোন বিশেষ মুহুর্তে আনন্দদায়ক বা চাহিদা পূরণের পরিস্থিতির আবির্ভাবে সুখের জন্ম হলেও যখন সেই সুখকর পরিস্থিতির পরিবর্তন হয়, তখন সেই সুখই দুঃখে পরিণত হয়।[n ৪][n ৫]

সংস্কার দুঃখ[সম্পাদনা]

সংস্কার দুঃখ বা সমখার দুঃখকে বুঝতে তিন প্রকার দুঃখের মধ্যে সবচেয়ে গভীর বিশ্লেষণের প্রয়োজন পড়ে। জীবন সহ জগতের সমস্ত অস্তিত্ব সর্বদা পরিবর্তনশীল এবং অচিরস্থায়ী, এই জ্ঞান লাভের পর মানুষ কখনোই চাহিদা পূরণে সক্ষম হতে পারে না। এই ক্ষোভ থেকে সংস্কার দুঃখের জন্ম। জীবনের অর্থই এই দুঃখে বিলুপ্ত হয়ে পড়ে।[web ৮][n ৬] পঞ্চস্কন্ধকে আঁকড়ে থাকলেও সংস্কার দুঃখ তৈরী হয়।[n ৭]

বিভিন্ন সূত্রে উল্লেখ[সম্পাদনা]

গৌতম বুদ্ধ দুঃখ সম্বন্ধে সারা জীবন ধরে শিক্ষা দিয়ে গেছেন। অলগদ্দুপম সূত্র, অনুরাধা সূত্র[n ৮], ধর্মচক্র প্রবর্তন সূত্র[n ৯], চুলমলুঙ্ক্যবাদ সূত্র[n ১০] প্রভৃতি সূত্রে বুদ্ধের দুঃখ সম্বন্ধীয় বাণীর উল্লেখ রয়েছে।

পাদটীকা[সম্পাদনা]

  1. বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে দুঃখের নিরাশাবাদী দৃষ্টিভঙ্গীর পরিবর্তে বাস্তববাদী ও প্রায়োগিক তত্ত্ব নির্দেশ করা হয়।
    • "Some people think just thinking about or considering suffering is pessimistic. But when the Buddha taught the four noble truths he first talked about suffering and the cause of suffering. It is not because he was pessimistic. He was being realistic. He was saying this is how it is. This is what is happening. Look! If you want to have cessation, happiness, freedom then you must look for the cause and you need a path. You have to see suffering otherwise you have no motivation to look for a path. Don't be naïve be realistic. Look! There is suffering, physically. Old age is happening. Sickness is around us. Death is happening all the time. So that's what I mean when I say Buddhism is realistic."[web ১]
    • "You've probably heard the rumor that "Life is suffering" is Buddhism's first principle, the Buddha's first noble truth. It's a rumor with good credentials, spread by well-respected academics and Dharma teachers alike, but a rumor nonetheless. The truth about the noble truths is far more interesting. The Buddha taught four truths — not one — about life: There is suffering, there is a cause for suffering, there is an end of suffering, and there is a path of practice that puts an end to suffering. These truths, taken as a whole, are far from pessimistic. They're a practical, problem-solving approach — the way a doctor approaches an illness, or a mechanic a faulty engine. You identify a problem and look for its cause. You then put an end to the problem by eliminating the cause."[web ২]
    • "Oftentimes, the First Noble Truth is misquoted as `All life is suffering," but that is an inaccurate and misleading reflection of the Buddha's insight. He did not teach that life is constant misery, nor that you should expect to feel pain and unhappiness at all times. Rather, he proclaimed that suffering is an unavoidable reality of ordinary human existence that is to be known and responded to wisely.[২]
    • "Although the first Noble Truth has been called pessimistic, Buddhist scholars have pointed out that Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic, but realistic. It presents things just as they are, neither better nor worse. We might add that the Buddhist outlook is one of tremendous hope, since a solution to the problem of dukkha is given in the fourth Noble Truth, a solution which amounts to a guarantee. That solution is the eight-fold path."[web ৩]
    • "Sometimes people feel that recognizing the truth of suffering conditions a pessimistic outlook on life, that somehow it is life-denying. Actually, it is quite the reverse. By denying what is true, for example, the truth of impermanence, we live in a world of illusion and enchantment. Then when circumstances change in ways we don't like, we feel disappointed, angry, or bitter. The Buddha expressed the liberating power of seeing the unreliability of conditions: "All that is subject to arising is subject to cessation. Becoming disenchanted one becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion the mind is liberated." "[৩]
    • "On the basis of its analysis of the problem of suffering, some have concluded that Buddhism must be judged a bleak, pessimistic and world-denying philosophy. From a Buddhist perspective, such a judgement may reflect a deep-seated refusal to accept the reality of duḥkha itself, and it certainly reflects a particular misunderstanding of the Buddha's teaching. The Buddha taught four truths and, by his own standards, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to its cessation are as much true realities as suffering and its cause. The growth of early Buddhism must be understood in the context of the existence of a number of different 'renouncer' groups who shared the view that 'suffering' in some sense characterizes human experience, and that the quest for happiness is thus only to be fulfilled by fleeing the world."[৪]
    • "As the Buddha points out in his many discourses, things change, and change can be effected without the naïveté that assumes that solutions are going to be permanently satisfactory and without the pessimism that assumes that it's all hopeless. The Buddha taught dukkha, but also the cessation of dukkha. The particulars of unpleasant circumstances can come to an end or be brought to an end, even if problems then surface in other areas. And the way of meeting conflict and problems can be compassionate, calm, and peaceful in itself. So accepting that life has its dark, problematic side needn't be depressing. Most fruitfully, the kind of suffering that is the mental reaction to a situation, even on an instinctive plane, can be completely abolished. With the ending of that kind of suffering, the mind is clearer and wiser and more capable of effecting positive change in the world of ever-changing circumstances."[৫]
    • "It is sometimes said that Buddhism is a very pessimistic religion, since it constantly talks about suffering. But Buddhism does not aim at creating suffering or a pessimistic attitude. It talks about suffering to engender an optimistic outlook. It conveys the message, "Yes there is suffering, but it can be removed." In order to do so, we have to open our eyes. If we pretend that everything is all right, it will not be of much avail, especially when a problem arises that is so great that it can not be denied." [৬]
    • "Normally we think our happiness is contingent upon external circumstances and situations, rather than upon our own inner attitude toward things, or toward life in general. The Buddha was saying that dissatisfaction is part of life, even if we are seeking happiness and even if we manage to find temporary happiness. The very fact that it is temporary means that sooner or later the happiness is going to pass. So the Buddha said that unless we understand this and see how pervasive dissatisfaction or duhkha is, it is impossible for us to start looking for real happiness."[৭]
    • "First of all, Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic. If anything at all, it is realistic, for it takes a realistic view of life and of the world. It looks at things objectively (yathābhūtam). It does not falsely lull you into living in a fool's paradise, nor does it frighten and agonize you with all kinds of imaginary fears and sins. It tells you exactly and objectively what you are and what the world around you is, and shows you the way to perfect freedom, peace, tranquility and happiness.
    One physician may gravely exaggerate an illness and give up hope altogether. Another may ignorantly declare that there is no illness and that no treatment is necessary, thus deceiving the patient with a false consolation. You may call the first one pessimistic and the second optimistic. Both are equally dangerous. But a third physician diagnoses the symptoms correctly, understands the cause and the nature of the illness, sees clearly that it can be cured, and courageously administers a course of treatment, thus saving his patient. The Buddha is like the last physician. He is the wise and scientific doctor for the ills of the world (Bhisakka or Bhaisajya-guru)."[৮]
    • "Buddha Dharma does not teach that everything is suffering. What Buddhism does say is that life, by its nature, is difficult, flawed, and imperfect. [...] That's the nature of life, and that's the First Noble Truth. From the Buddhist point of view, this is not a judgement of life's joys and sorrows; this is a simple, down-to-earth, matter-of-fact description."[৯]
  2. "The conception of dukkha may be viewed from three aspects: (1) dukkha as ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha), (2) dukkha as produced by change (vipariṇāma-dukkha) and (3) dukkha as conditioned states (saṃkhāra-dukkha)."[১১]
  3. "Even animals understand the suffering of suffering. It is unpleasant and explicitly undesirable. Nobody runs after this form of suffering, and we need no sophisticated explanations to understand it. Nor do we need to devise skillful stratagems to avoid it—animals, insects, and humans are all constantly involved with doing so already, even though none of our attempts seems very skillful. We all wish to be free from this gross suffering."[১৬]
  4. "Because this level of suffering is much more subtle and not apparent without some analysis, it is more difficult to recognize. Without investigation, objects at this level actually appear to be causes of happiness, because they bring some temporary pleasure. However, if we have mindfulness, we can see them for what they are. Initially, things and events (such as relationships, possessions, and so forth) appear desirable—they look as if they will bring happiness. That’s why we become attracted to them. However, when time passes and circumstances change, the same desirable, handsome, beautiful object turns into something ugly or undesirable—something we want to avoid।"[১৭]
  5. "[...] we need an understanding of the gross level of impermanence—how things come into being, remain, and then cease by the power of things other than themselves. Things arise by the power of others, and while they remain they are still under the power of others. Their cessation also depends on the power of others. Nothing happens independently. Understanding this gross level of impermanence and the fact that we actually have so little freedom will help us understand the more subtle levels of impermanence."[১৮]
    • "[..] every day, even during the pleasant moments, do you not experience an underlying unease about the future? This worry and anxiety is a manifestation of the third type of suffering the Buddha identified – life's inherent unsatisfactoriness due to its insubstantial compositional nature. Each moment arises due to certain conditions, then it just disappears. There is not a lasting or substantial "there there" in daily life, thus it is often described as being like a dream."[১৯]
    • "This level of suffering, and the causes and conditions that bring it about, can be understood through the teachings on the subtle levels of impermanence. Pervasive suffering is present wherever we are born in cyclic existence; we cannot avoid it. And yet, because its causes and conditions are very deeply rooted, it is very difficult for us, as ordinary people, to even recognize it and acknowledge at all. However, only when we acknowledge it we can begin to abandon it. The effects of pervasive suffering spread throughout our lives and often manifest in the form of grosser sufferings, which makes it difficult for us to really come to grips with it. It is so enmeshed that even understanding it, let alone overcoming it, takes a lot of effort."[২০]
  6. "Her conclusion is that the associating of the five skandhas as a whole with dukkha indicates that experience is a combination of a straightforward cognitive process together with the psychological orientation that colours it in terms of unsatisfactoriness. Experience is thus both cognitive and affective, and cannot be separated from perception. As one's perception changes, so one's experience is different: we each have our own particular cognitions, perceptions and volitional activities in our own particular way and degree, and our own way of responding to and interpreting our experience is our very experience. In harmony with this line of thought, Gethin observes that the skandhas are presented as five aspects of the nature of conditioned existence from the point of view of the experiencing subject; five aspects of one's experience. Hence each khandha represents 'a complex class of phenomena that is continuously arising and falling away in response to processes of consciousness based on the six spheres of sense. They thus become the five upādānakhandhas, encompassing both grasping and all that is grasped."[২১]
  7. "Both formerly & now, it is only dukkha that I describe, and the cessation of dukkha[web ৯]
  8. "This is the noble truth of dukkha: birth is dukkha, aging is dukkha, illness is dukkha, death is dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are dukkha; union with what is displeasing is dukkha; separation from what is pleasing is dukkha; not to get what one wants is dukkha; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are dukkha."[২২][web ১০]
  9. "And what is declared by me? 'This is dukkha,' is declared by me. 'This is the origination of dukkha,' is declared by me. 'This is the cessation of dukkha,' is declared by me. 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha,' is declared by me. And why are they declared by me? Because they are connected with the goal, are fundamental to the holy life. They lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, calming, direct knowledge, self-awakening, Unbinding. That's why they are declared by me."[web ১১]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 61।
  2. Moffitt 2008, Kindle locations 459-461।
  3. Goldstein 2002, পৃ. 150।
  4. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 62।
  5. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, পৃ. 36।
  6. Ringu Tulku 2005, পৃ. 23।
  7. Traleg Kyabgon 2001, পৃ. 4।
  8. Walpola Rahula 2007, Kindle locations 525-541।
  9. Lama Surya Das 1997, loc.1300।
  10. Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, পৃ. 11।
  11. Walpola Rahula 2007, loc. 590-592।
  12. Chogyam Trungpa 2009, পৃ. 26-28।
  13. Sakyong Mipham 2003, পৃ. 159-160।
  14. Ringu Tulku 2005, পৃ. 24।
  15. Lama Surya Das 1997, পৃ. 78-80।
  16. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 614-617।
  17. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 628-633।
  18. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 637-640।
  19. Moffitt 2008, Kindle Locations 530-533।
  20. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 660-665।
  21. Ronkin 2005, পৃ. 43।
  22. Bhikkhu Bodhi 2000, পৃ. 1844।

ওয়েব তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

উৎস[সম্পাদনা]

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  • Moffitt, Phillip (২০০৮)। Dancing with Life: Buddhist Insights for Finding Meaning and Joy in the Face of Suffering। Rodale, Kindle Edition। 
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (১৮৯৯, ১৯৬৪)। A Sanskrit-English Dictionary। London: Oxford University Press। 
  • Nanamoli, Bhikkhu (১৯৯৫)। The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya। Boston: Wisdom Publications। আইএসবিএন 0-86171-072-X 
  • Nhat Hanh, Thich (১৯৯৯)। The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching। Three River Press। 
  • Prebish, Charles (১৯৯৩)। Historical Dictionary of Buddhism। The Scarecrow Press। আইএসবিএন 0-8108-2698-4 
  • Potter, Karl (২০০৪)। The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Vol. IX: Buddhist philosophy from 350 to 600 AD 
  • Ringu Tulku (২০০৫)। Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism। Snow Lion। 
  • Ronkin, Noa (২০০৫)। Early Buddhist Metaphysics: the Making of a Philosophical Tradition। Routledge। 
  • Sargeant, Winthrop (২০০৯)। The Bhagavad Gita। SUNY Press। 
  • Smith, Huston; Novak, Philip (২০০৯)। Buddhism: A Concise Introduction। HarperOne, Kindle Edition। 
  • Snelling, John (১৯৮৭)। The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice। London: Century Paperbacks। 
  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (১৯৯৭)। Tittha Sutta: SectariansAN 3.61। সংগৃহীত ১২ নভেম্বর ২০০৭ 
  • Traleg Kyabgon (২০০১)। The Essence of Buddhism। Shambhala। 
  • Walpola Rahula (২০০৭)। What the Buddha Taught। Grove Press, Kindle Edition। 

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