ত্রিবিষ

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন
ভবচক্রে মোহকে শুকররূপে, রাগকে পাখিরূপে এবং দ্বেষকে সাপরূপে কল্পনা করা হয়।[n ১]
ভবচক্রে মোহকে শুকররূপে, রাগকে পাখিরূপে এবং দ্বেষকে সাপরূপে কল্পনা করা হয়।[n ১]

ত্রিবিষ বা অকুশল মূল বলতে অবিদ্যা বা মোহ, রাগ এবং দ্বেষ এই তিন প্রকার ক্লেশকে বোঝানো হয়। এই তিনটি বিষ বৌদ্ধ ধর্মে দুঃখ সমুদয় বা দুঃখের কারণ রূপে পরিগণিত হয়।

বর্ণনা[সম্পাদনা]

বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে অবিদ্যা বা মোহ, রাগ এবং দ্বেষ নামক তিনটি বিষ মানুষকে সংসারে আবদ্ধ রাখে। ভবচক্র অনুসারে এই ত্রিবিষ কর্মের সৃষ্টি করে। এই ত্রিবিষের মধ্যে অবিদ্যা বা মোহ হল প্রধান বিষ যা থেকে রাগ এবং দ্বেষের জন্ম হয়।[১][২][৩][৪][n ২][n ৩] এই ত্রিবিষ অপর ক্লেশের কারণ হিসেবে উল্লিখিত হয়।[৭][৮][n ৪]

থেরবাদ ও মহাযানে ত্রিবিষ[সম্পাদনা]

সংস্কৃত[১০][১১] পালি[১২] তিব্বতী ওয়াইলি[১০][১৩] অর্থ[১৪]
মোহ মোহ গ্তি মুগ gti mug অবিদ্যা (সংস্কৃত); অবিজ্জ (পালি); মা রিগপা (ওয়াইলি)[১৫]
রাগ লোভ 'দোদ চাগস dod chags -
দ্বেষ দোষ ঝে স্দাং zhe sdang -

মহাযান বৌদ্ধ ধর্মে এই তিনটি ক্লেশকে একত্রে ত্রিবিষ এবং থেরবাদ বৌদ্ধ ধর্মে একে অকুশল মূল বলে উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে। মহাযান বৌদ্ধ ধর্মে অবিদ্যার একটি প্রকারভেদ হিসেবে মোহকে উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে।[১৬] থেরবাদ বৌদ্ধ ধর্মে মোহ এবং অবিদ্যা সমার্থক শব্দ কিন্তু মোহ চৈতসিকের সঙ্গে সম্পর্কিত যেখানে অবিদ্যা নিদানের সঙ্গে সম্পর্কিত।

পাদটীকা[সম্পাদনা]

  1. "Tibetans have a traditional painting called the Wheel of Life, which depicts the samsaric cycle of existence. In the centre of this wheel are three animals: a pig, a snake, and a bird. They represent the three poisons. The pig stands for ignorance, although a pig is not necessarily more stupid than other animals. The comparison is based on the Indian concept of a pig being the most foolish of animals, since it always sleeps in the dirtiest places and eats whatever comes to its mouth. Similarly, the snake is identified with anger because it will be aroused and leap up at the slightest touch. The bird represents desire and clinging. In Western publications it is frequently referred to as a cock, but this is not exactly accurate. This particular bird does not exist in Western countries, as far as I know. It is used as a symbol because it is very attached to its partner. These three animals represent the three main mental poisons, which are the core of the Wheel of Life. Stirred by these, the whole cycle of existence evolves. Without them, there is no samsara."[১]
  2. "[It is] ignorance that drives the entire process... [Ignorance] isn't just an inability to apprehend the truth but an active misapprehension of the status of oneself and all other objects—one's own mind or body, other people, and so forth. It is the conception or assumption that phenomena exist in a far more concrete way than they actually do. Based on this misapprehension of the status of persons and things, we are drawn into afflictive desire and hatred [i.e. attachment and aversion]... Not knowing the real nature of phenomena, we are driven to generate desire for what we like and hatred for what we do not like and for what blocks our desires. These three—ignorance, desire, and hatred—are called the three poisons; they pervert our mental outlook."[৫]
  3. In the Buddhist sense, ignorance is equivalent to the identification of a self as being separate from everything else. It consists of the belief that there is an "I" that is not part of anything else. On this basis we think, "I am one and unique. Everything else is not me. It is something different."... From this identification stems the dualistic view, since once there is an "I," there are also "others." Up to here is "me." The rest is "they." As soon as this split is made, it creates two opposite ways of reaction: "This is nice, I want it!" and "This is not nice, I do not want it!" ... On the one hand there are those things that seem to threaten or undermine us. Maybe they will harm us or take away our identity. They are a danger to our security. Due to this way of thinking, aversion comes up... Then on the other hand there are those things that are so nice. We think, "I want them. I want them so much..." Through this way of thinking...attachment arises.[৬]
  4. "The conditioning factors [kleshas] are often referred to in Buddhist terms as “mental afflictions,” or sometimes “poisons.” Although the texts of Buddhist psychology examine a wide range of conditioning factors, all of them agree in identifying three primary afflictions that form the basis of all other factors that inhibit our ability to see things as they really are: ignorance, attachment, and aversion.[৯]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Ringu Tulku (2005), p. 30.
  2. Dalai Lama (1992), p. 4, 42
  3. Sonam Rinchen (2006), p. 8-9.
  4. Dzongsar Khyentse (2004), p. 3.
  5. Dalai Lama (1992), p. 4 (from the Introduction by Jeffrey Hopkins)
  6. Ringu Tulku (2005), p. 29
  7. Daniel Goleman (2003), pages 106, 111
  8. Khenchen Konchog Gyaltshen (2010), p. 451.
  9. Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche (2008), pp. 116-117
  10. Padmakara (1998), p. 336, 414. (from the glossary)
  11. Damien Keown. "akuśala-mūla." A Dictionary of Buddhism. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. (May 29, 2011). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O108-akualamla.html
  12. Nyanatiloka (1980), http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/g_m/muula.htm
  13. Ranjung Yeshe Wiki - Dharma Dictionary. http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/dug_gsum
  14. Damien Keown. "moha." A Dictionary of Buddhism. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. (May 30, 2011). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O108-moha.html
  15. Ranjung Yeshe Wiki - Dharma Dictionary. http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/gti_mug
  16. Berzin, Alexander. Berzin Archives, Glossary of Buddhist Terms ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৩ জানুয়ারি ২০১২ তারিখে

উৎস[সম্পাদনা]

  • Dalai Lama (1992). The Meaning of Life, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Boston: Wisdom.
  • Dzongsar Khyentse (2004). Gentle Voice #22, September 2004 Issue.
  • Epstein, Mark (2004). Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective. Basic Books. Kindle Edition.
  • Geshe Sonam Rinchen (2006). How Karma Works: The Twelve Links of Dependent Arising, Snow Lion
  • Goleman, Daniel (2003). Destructive Emotions: A Scientific Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. Random House.
  • Keown, Damien (2004). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford University Press.
  • Khenchen Konchog Gyaltshen (2010). A Complete Guide to the Buddhist Path. Snow Lion.
  • Lamotte, Étienne (translator). The Treatise on the Great Virtue of Wisdom of Nagarjuna. Gampo Abbey.
  • Geshe Tashi Tsering (২০০৬), Buddhist Psychology: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume III, Perseus Books Group, Kindle Edition 
  • Gethin, Rupert (১৯৯৮), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press 
  • Leifer, Ron (1997). The Happiness Project. Snow Lion.
  • Nyanatiloka (1980), Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Buddhist Publication Society, http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/dic_idx.html
  • O'Brien, Barbara. http://buddhism.about.com/od/buddhismglossaryt/g/threepoisons.htm
  • Padmakara Translation Group (translator) (1998). The Words of My Perfect Teacher, by Patrul Rinpoche. Altamira.
  • Rangjung Yeshe Wiki - Dharma Dictionary. http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/dug_gsum
  • Ringu Tulku (2005). Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion.
  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2011). Awakening the Sacred Body: Tibetan Yogas of Breath and Movement. Hay House.
  • Trungram Gyaltrul Rinpoche Sherpa (2004). Gampopa, the Monk and the Yogi : His Life and Teachings. Harvard University.
  • Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche (2008). The Joy of Living. Paperback. Three Rivers Press.

বহিঃসংযোগ[সম্পাদনা]