নিধার্মিক নোবেল বিজয়ীদের তালিকা

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন
১৯৯১-২০০০ সাল পর্যন্ত নাস্তিক, সংশয়বাদী এবং মুক্তমনা নোবেল বিজয়ীদের শতকরা হিসাব[১]

এই তালিকাটি সেসব নোবেল বিজয়ীদের নিয়ে করা হয়েছে, যারা নিজেদের অজ্ঞেয়বাদী, মুক্তমনা, নাস্তিক অথবা নিধার্মিক বলে ঘোষণা করেছেন [২] এঁদের মধ্যে অনেক বিজয়ী জীবনের প্রারম্ভে ধার্মিক ছিলেন। একটি হিসাবমতে, ১৯৯১-২০০০ সাল পর্যন্ত মোট নোবেল বিজয়ীদের ১০.৫% এবং সাহিত্য থেকে নোবেল বিজয়ীদের ৩৫ শতাংশকে এই তালিকায় অন্তর্ভুক্ত করা হয়েছে।[৩] একই হিসাব মতে, ১৯০১-২০০০ সাল পর্যন্ত নাস্তিক, অজ্ঞেয়বাদী এবং মুক্তমনাদের মধ্যে চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞানে ৮.৯%, রসায়নে ৭.১% অর্থনীতিতে ৫.২%, পদার্থবিজ্ঞানে ৪.৭%, এবং শান্তিতে ৩.৬% নোবেল পেয়েছেন।[৩] আলফ্রেড নোবেল নিজেও পরবর্তী জীবনে নাস্তিক হয়ে গিয়েছিলেন।[৪]

রসায়নে[সম্পাদনা]

হ্যারল্ড ক্রোটো, ১৯৯৬ সালে রসায়ন বিভাগ থেকে নোবেলজয়ী

অর্থনীতিতে[সম্পাদনা]

সাহিত্যে[সম্পাদনা]

জ্য পল সাত্রে, ১৯৬৪ সালে সাহিত্যে নোবেলজয়ী

শান্তিতে[সম্পাদনা]

পদার্থবিজ্ঞানে[সম্পাদনা]

চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞানে[সম্পাদনা]

আরো দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Shalev 2003, পৃ. 59
  2. Kimball, John (২০১)। Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties। CRC Press। পৃষ্ঠা 323। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4665-7636-0 
  3. Shalev, Baruch Aba। 100 years of Nobel prizes। New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors। পৃষ্ঠা 57–59। আইএসবিএন 9788126902781  অজানা প্যারামিটার |1= উপেক্ষা করা হয়েছে (সাহায্য); অজানা প্যারামিটার |ate= উপেক্ষা করা হয়েছে (সাহায্য)
  4. Evlanoff, Michael; Fluor, Marjorie (১৯৬৯)। Alfred Nobel: The Loneliest Millionaire। W. Ritchie Press। পৃষ্ঠা 88। 
  5. Stein, Gordon, সম্পাদক (১৯৮৫)। The Encyclopedia of unbelief1 (Nachdr. সংস্করণ)। Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books। পৃষ্ঠা 594। আইএসবিএন 978-0-87975-307-8Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927), recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903), was a declared atheist... 
  6. Boyer, Paul D. (মার্চ ২০০৪), "A Path to Atheism", Freethought Today, Freedom From Religion Foundation, 21 (2), জুন ৩, ২০১১ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা, সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ১৬, ২০১০. 
  7. Kroto, Harold (২০১৫)। "Sir John Cornforth ('Kappa'): Some Personal Recollections"। Australian Journal of Chemistry68 (4): 697–698। doi:10.1071/CH14601 
  8. Perrin, Francis (২০০৮)। "Joliot, Frédéric"। Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography7। Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons। পৃষ্ঠা 151। Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life. 
  9. Perrin, Francis (২০০৮)। "Joliot-Curie, Irène"Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography7। Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons। পৃষ্ঠা 157। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৬ অক্টোবর ২০১৫It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism. 
  10. JPararajasingham। "50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part I)"। YouTube। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি ২০১৬ 
  11. "Herbert Hauptman"The Telegraph। ২৭ অক্টো ২০১১। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race." 
  12. Cardellini, Liberato (অক্টোবর ২০০৭)। "Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann" (pdf)Journal of Chemical Education84 (10): 1631–1635। doi:10.1021/ed084p1631। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫atheist who is moved by religion. 
  13. Harold W. Kroto (১৯৯৬)। "Harold Kroto – Autobiography"। Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize। সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ২৪, ২০১২I am a devout atheist – nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator. 
  14. Masood, Ehsan (২২ জুলাই ২০০৬)। "Islam's reformers"Prospect। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt 
  15. "Peter Mitchell – Biographical"The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978। Nobelprize.org। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  16. "Today, I consider myself, in Thomas Huxley's terms, an agnostic. I don’t know whether there is a God or creator, or whatever we may call a higher intelligence or being. I don’t know whether there is an ultimate reason for our being or whether there is anything beyond material phenomena. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify (disprove) them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists." George Olah, A Life of Magic Chemistry
  17. Kocka, edited by Jürgen (২০১০)। Work in a Modern Society the German Experience in European-American Perspective.। New York: Berghahn Books, Inc.। পৃষ্ঠা 45। আইএসবিএন 978-1-84545-797-6 
  18. Pafumi, G. R.। Is Our Vision of God Obsolete?: Often What We Believe Is Not What We Observe। 2010: Xlibris Corporation। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4500-0396-4 
  19. Pauling, Linus; Ikeda, Daisaku; Gage, Richard L. (১৯৯২)। In quest of peace and the century of life : a dialogue between Linus Pauling and Daisaku Keda। Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers। পৃষ্ঠা 21–22। আইএসবিএন 978-0-86720-278-6 
  20. "Max Perutz Interview 2"। The Vega Science Trust.। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৯ জুন ২০১৩ 
  21. "Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn"। TSL EDUCATION LTD.। ২৮ নভেম্বর ১৯৯৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৯ জুন ২০১৩Dr Perutz, said: "It is one thing for scientists to oppose creationism which is demonstrably false but quite another to make pronouncements which offend people's religious faith -- that is a form of tactlessness which merely brings science into disrepute. My view of religion and ethics is simple: even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did." 
  22. Hargittai, István; Hargittai, Magdolna (২০০২)। Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists (Verschiedene Aufl. সংস্করণ)। London: Imperial College Press। পৃষ্ঠা 73–83। আইএসবিএন 1-86094-288-1 
  23. Smith, Michael (১৯৯৩)। "Michael Smith – Biographical"। Nobelprize.org। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫My only prizes from the Sunday School were "for attendance", so I presume my atheism, which developed when I left home to attend university, although latent, was discernible. 
  24. Wysong, Randy L. (১৯৭৬)। The creation-evolution controversy. (7th print সংস্করণ)। Midlanding, Michigan: Inquiry Press। পৃষ্ঠা 75। আইএসবিএন 978-0-918112-02-6 
  25. Ebenstein, Lanny (২০০৭)। Milton Friedman a biography (1st সংস্করণ)। New York: Palgrave Macmillan। পৃষ্ঠা 9। আইএসবিএন 978-0-230-60345-5 
  26. Elzinga, Kenneth G.; Givens, Matthew R. (Spring ২০০৯)। "Christianity and Hayek"। Faith & Economics (53): 53–68। 
  27. Nasar, Sylvia (২০১২)। A Beautiful Mind (Reprint সংস্করণ)। Faber & Faber। পৃষ্ঠা 64। আইএসবিএন 978-0-571-26607-4 
  28. From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1994, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1995
  29. Palfrey, Judith S. (২০০৬)। Child health in America : making a difference through advocacy (Online-Ausg. সংস্করণ)। Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University। পৃষ্ঠা 123। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8018-8453-5 
  30. Cronin, Anthony (১৯৯৯)। Samuel Beckett : the last modernist (1st Da Capo Press সংস্করণ)। New York: Da Capo Press। পৃষ্ঠা 90। আইএসবিএন 978-0-306-80898-2They were both agnostics, though both set a high associative value on the language in which the traditional religions of their forebears had been expressed, and in conversation and writing were not averse to ironic reference to certain metaphysical concepts. 
  31. Paulson, Arthur C. (১৯৩০)। "Bjørnson and the Norwegian-Americans, 1880–81"Studies and Records। Norwegian-American Historical Association। 5: 84–109। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  32. Barker, Dan (২০১১)। The good atheist : living a purpose-filled life without God। Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press। আইএসবিএন 978-1-56975-846-5 
  33. Maze, John Robert (২০১০)। Albert Camus : plague and terror, priest and atheist। Bern: Peter Lang। আইএসবিএন 978-3-0343-0006-3 
  34. Collins, Joseph (Fall ২০১৫)। "Anatole France"VQR91 (4)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  35. Ramesh Chopra (২০০৫)। Academic Dictionary Of Philosophy। Gyan Books। পৃষ্ঠা 142। আইএসবিএন 9788182052246His agnosticism is best seen in his 'Moods, Songs, and Doggerels'. 
  36. Behan, Tom (২০০০)। Dario Fo : revolutionary theatre। London: Pluto। পৃষ্ঠা 103। আইএসবিএন 978-0-7453-1362-7 
  37. Bazin, Nancy Topping, সম্পাদক (১৯৯০)। Conversationwith Nadine Gordimer। London: University Press of Mississippi। পৃষ্ঠা 151। আইএসবিএন 978-0-87805-445-9 
  38. Gao Xingjian (২০০০)। "Nobel Lecture – Literature 2000"। Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize। সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ২৪, ২০১২… I would like to say that despite my being an atheist I have always shown reverence for the unknowable. 
  39. Feinstein, Adam (২০০৮)। Pablo neruda.। Bloomsbury Publishing USA। পৃষ্ঠা 36, 38, 97। আইএসবিএন 978-1-59691-781-1 
  40. Diggins, John Patrick (২০০৭)। Eugene O'Neill's America desire under democracy। Chicago: University of Chicago Press। পৃষ্ঠা 130। আইএসবিএন 978-0-226-14882-3O'Neill, an agnostic and an anarchist, maintained little hope in religion or politics and saw institutions not serving to preserve liberty but standing in the way of the birth of true freedom. 
  41. Sartre, Jean-Paul (১৯৮৫)। Existentialism and human emotions (1st Carol Pub. Group সংস্করণ)। New York: Philosophical Library। পৃষ্ঠা 15। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8065-0902-0 
  42. "Wole Soyinka"Academy of Achievement। Washington D.C.। ২০ ডিসেম্বর ২০১৩ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০ ডিসেম্বর ২০১৩ 
  43. Wole Soyinka (২০০৭)। Climate of Fear: The Quest for Dignity in a Dehumanized World। Random House LLC। পৃষ্ঠা 119। আইএসবিএন 978-0-307-43082-3I already had certain agnostic tendencies—which would later develop into outright atheistic convictions— so it was not that I believed in any kind of divine protection. 
  44. Beegel, Susan F.; Shillinglaw, Susan; Tiffney, Jr., Wesley N. (২০০৭)। Steinbeck and the Environment Interdisciplinary Approaches.। Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press। পৃষ্ঠা 159। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8173-5487-9 
  45. Benson, Jackson J. (১৯৮৪)। The true adventures of John Steinbeck, writer: a biography। Viking Press। পৃষ্ঠা 248। আইএসবিএন 978-0-670-16685-5Ricketts did not convert his friend to a religious point of view — Steinbeck remained an agnostic and, essentially, a materialist — but Ricketts's religious acceptance did tend to work on his friend, … 
  46. Eberstadt, Fernanda (১৮ জুন ২০১০)। "José Saramago, Nobel Prize-Winning Portuguese Writer, Dies at 87"The New York TImes। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  47. Ceadel, Martin (২০০৯)। Living the great illusion : Sir Norman Angell, 1872–1967। Oxford: Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 22। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-957116-1 
  48. "Gorbachev a closet Christian?"Chicago Tribune। ২৩ মার্চ ২০০৮। ১১ মে ২০০৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। 
  49. Gorelik, Gennady; Antonina W. Bouis (২০০৫)। The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 356। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-515620-1Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart. 
  50. Gorelik, Gennadiĭ Efimovich; Antonina W. Bouis (২০০৫)। The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 158। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-515620-1। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৭ মে ২০১২Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist. 
  51. Todd K. Shackelford; Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, সম্পাদকগণ (২০১২)। The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 465। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-973840-3The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist. 
  52. Wiesel, Elie Wiesel (২০১০)। And the sea is never full memoirs 1969- (Unabridged সংস্করণ)। New York: Alfred Knopf। পৃষ্ঠা 318। আইএসবিএন 978-0-307-76409-6 
  53. "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov"। RT.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ এপ্রিল ২০১২In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future. 
  54. "Zhores I. Alferov"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ এপ্রিল ২০১২ 
  55. "Nuclear power is uniquely unforgiving: as Swedish Nobel physicist Hannes Alfvén said, "No acts of God can be permitted."" Amory Lovins, Inside NOVA – Nuclear After Japan: Amory Lovins, pbs.org.
  56. Helge Kragh (২০০৪)। Matter and Spirit in the Universe: Scientific and Religious Preludes to Modern Cosmology। OECD Publishing। পৃষ্ঠা 252। আইএসবিএন 978-1-86094-469-7Alfven dismissed in his address religion as a "myth," and passionately criticized the big-bang theory for being dogmatic and violating basic standards of science, to be no less mythical than religion. 
  57. Anderson, Philip W. (২০১১)। More and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon। Singapore: World Scientific। পৃষ্ঠা 177। আইএসবিএন 9789814350143We atheists can . . . argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse. 
  58. Brian, Dennis (২০০৮)। The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries। Basic Books। পৃষ্ঠা 117। আইএসবিএন 978-0-465-01139-1 
  59. Nye, Mary Jo (২০০৮)। "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart"। Gillispie, Charles Coulston। Complete dictionary of scientific biography19। Detroit, Mich.: Charles Scribner's Sons। পৃষ্ঠা 293। আইএসবিএন 978-0-684-31559-1The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist. 
  60. Simmons, John (২০০০)। "Niels Bohr and the atom 1885–1962"। The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present। New York, N.Y.: Kensington Pub. Corp.। পৃষ্ঠা 16। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8065-2139-8His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist... 
  61. Peterson, Richard (২০১০)। "The Copenhagen spirit of science and birth of the nuclear atom"। Stewart, Melville Y.। Science and religion in dialogue। Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell। পৃষ্ঠা 416। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4443-1736-7... after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer. 
  62. Favrholdt, David (১৯৯৪)। "Niels Bohr and realism"। Faye, Jan; Folse, Henry J.। Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy। Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands। পৃষ্ঠা 88। আইএসবিএন 9789401581066Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive. 
  63. "Percy Williams Bridgman"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৪ এপ্রিল ২০১২He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member. 
  64. Maila L. Walter (১৯৯০)। Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961)। Stanford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 14–15। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8047-1796-0Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion. 
  65. Ray Monk (২০১৩)। Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center। Random House LLC। আইএসবিএন 978-0-385-50413-3In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist. 
  66. Brown, Andrew (১৯৯৭)। The neutron and the bomb : a biography of Sir James Chadwick (1st সংস্করণ)। Oxford: Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 362। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-853992-6He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end... 
  67. Vishveshwara, C. V. (এপ্রিল ২০০০)। "Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections" (PDF)Current Science78 (8): 1025–1033। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৬ অক্টোবর ২০১৫In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word. 
  68. Heisenberg, Werner (১৯৭২)। Physics and beyond : encounters and conversations (1st Harper Torchbook সংস্করণ)। New York: Harper & Row। আইএসবিএন 0-06-131622-9... Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination.[…] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another.[…]" Pauli jokingly said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is: God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet." 
  69. Dukas, Helen; Hoffmann, Banesh, সম্পাদকগণ (১৯৮৯)। Albert Einstein, the human side : new glimpses from his archives। Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press। পৃষ্ঠা 43। আইএসবিএন 978-0-691-02368-7It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. 
  70. Calaprice, Alice, সম্পাদক (২০০০)। The expanded quotable Einstein (New সংস্করণ)। Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press। আইএসবিএন 978-0-691-07021-6 
  71. Frankenberry, Nancy K. (২০০৮)। The faith of scientists in their own words। Princeton: Princeton University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 153। আইএসবিএন 978-0-691-13487-1 
  72. Feynman, Richard P. (২০১১)। Leighton, Ralph, সম্পাদক। "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character। W. W. Norton & Company। পৃষ্ঠা 25। আইএসবিএন 978-0-393-07981-4The elders began getting nervous, because I was an avowed atheist by that time 
  73. "Val Fitch"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৮ জুলাই ২০১২ 
  74. Nachmansohn, David (১৯৭৯)। German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933.। Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer। পৃষ্ঠা 62। আইএসবিএন 978-0-387-90402-3As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage.. 
  75. Brigham Narins (২০০১)। Notable Scientists from 1900 to the Present: D-H। Gale Group। পৃষ্ঠা 797। আইএসবিএন 978-0-7876-1753-0Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in 1918, religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. He maintained his church affiliation through his adult years but characterized himself as a "benevolent agnostic". 
  76. "The family adopted the Lutheran faith in 1918, and although Gabor nominally remained true to it, religion appears to have had little influence in his life. He later acknowledged the role played by an antireligious humanist education in the development of his ideas and stated his position as being that of a “benevolent agnostic.”" "Gabor, Dennis." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (30 January 2012).
  77. Wouk, Herman (২০১০)। The language God talks on science and religion (1st সংস্করণ)। New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co.। পৃষ্ঠা 17। আইএসবিএন 978-0-316-09675-1 
  78. Vitaly Ginzburg (২০০৩)। "Vitaly L. Ginzburg – Autobiography"। Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize। সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ২৪, ২০১২I am an atheist, that is, I think nothing exists except and beyond nature. Within the limits of my, undoubtedly insufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy, I do not see in fact any difference between atheism and the pantheism of Spinoza. 
  79. Sample, Ian (১৭ নভেম্বর ২০০৭)। "The god of small things"। London: The Guardian। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ মার্চ ২০১৩The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious." 
  80. "Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview"। ২০০৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৫ এপ্রিল ২০১২When asked by the interviewer about his view of the universe and the design or non-design of the universe, Hooft replied, "Well absolutely amazing fact that it seems that the entire universe is now in grasp of theoretical physics. It still highly premature to make theories that includes how the big bang originated as and things like that. Although, people are tying that every day. ...As far as I'm concerned, everything seems to behave completely rationally. The laws of physics is all we need to understand how the universe got into being. And then eventually we end up with this religious question as to why is the universe is the way it is and how can it be it is a place for humans to live in, that is a miracle. I don't have really any answers here, but as a physicist I've learn to appreciate the fact that everything seems to have totally rational explanations and as far as I'm concerned, I expect the entire universe now also to be something you can explain in completely rational terms. That what I expect now, just because of past experience." 
  81. "Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview"। ২০০৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৫ এপ্রিল ২০১২When asked by the interviewer about his belief in an afterlife, Hooft replied, "Well, such beliefs I think I related to religions of the past and I don't think that notions such as 'afterlife' has any...scientific basis. Not in terms of modern science. So I can only say no." 
  82. Kroemer, Herbert। "Herbert Kroemer – Science Video Interview"Interviewer: "You have no belief in a afterlife?" Kroemer: "That's correct." Interviewer: "...You don't see the evidence of a designer?" Kroemer: "No, I don't." Interviewer: "Could you say more about it?" Kroemer: "I think it's just wishful thinking." 
  83. Schaefer, Henry F. (২০০৮)। Science and Christianity : conflict or coherence?। Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia। পৃষ্ঠা 9। আইএসবিএন 0-9742975-0-XI present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century. 
  84. Dan Falk (২০০৫)। "What About God?"। Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything। Arcade Publishing। পৃষ্ঠা 195। আইএসবিএন 978-1-55970-733-6"Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money." - Leon Lederman 
  85. Babu Gogineni (জুলাই ১০, ২০১২)। "It's the Atheist Particle, actually"। Postnoon News। ১১ জুলাই ২০১২ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১০ জুলাই ২০১২Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term, and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done! 
  86. Barrow, John D. (২০০০)। The book of nothing : vacuums, voids, and the latest ideas about the origins of the universe (1st Vintage Books সংস্করণ)। New York: Vintage Books। পৃষ্ঠা 136। আইএসবিএন 978-0-375-72609-5 
  87. Eremoenko, Alexey (৯ অক্টোবর ২০১৪)। "Q&A: Russian Nobel Laureate on Fun, God and the 'Ideal Physicist'"The Moscow Times। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি ২০১৬ 
  88. Bernard Valeur, Jean-Claude Brochon (২০০১)। New Trends in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences। Springer। পৃষ্ঠা 17। আইএসবিএন 978-3-540-67779-6Jean and Francis Perrin held similar political and philosophical ideas. Both were socialists and atheists. 
  89. Moore, Walter (১৯৯৪)। A life of Erwin Schrödinger। Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press। পৃষ্ঠা 86। আইএসবিএন 978-0-521-46934-0Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God" … 
  90. Diem-Lane, Andrea (২০০৮)। Spooky Physics: Einstein vs. Bohr। MSAC Philosophy Group। পৃষ্ঠা 68। আইএসবিএন 978-1-56543-080-8In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god. 
  91. Lutzer, Erwin W.। 7 Reasons Why You Can Trust the Bibleআইএসবিএন 9780802493279George Smoot, a committed atheist, admitted, “There is no doubt that a parallel exists between the big bang as an event and the Christian notion of creation .." 
  92. The International Academy of Humanism at the website of the Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Some of this information is also at the International Humanist and Ethical Union ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৮ এপ্রিল ২০১২ তারিখে website
  93. Istva ́n Hargittai, Magdolna Hargittai (২০০৬)। Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists। Imperial College Press। পৃষ্ঠা 749। আইএসবিএন 978-1-86094-885-5Jack Steinberger: "I'm now a bit anti-Jewish since my last visit to the synagogue, but my atheism does not necessarily reject religion." 
  94. Ginzburg, V. L. (২০০৫)। About Science, Myself and Others। CRC Press। পৃষ্ঠা 253। আইএসবিএন 978-0-7503-0992-9Nowadays, when we are facing manifestations of religious and. more often, pseudoreligious feelings, it is appropriate to mention that Igor Evgenevich was a convinced and unreserved atheist. 
  95. Feinberg, E. L. & Leonidov, A. V. (২০১১)। Physicists: Epoch and Personalities (2 সংস্করণ)। World Scientific। পৃষ্ঠা 86। আইএসবিএন 9789812834164 
  96. Azpurua, Ana Elena (মার্চ ২৪, ২০০৮)। "In Search of the God Particle"Newsweek। পৃষ্ঠা 3। সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ২৫, ২০০৮I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that. 
  97. Jesse Hong Xiong (২০০৯)। "Seven"। The Outline of Parapsychology। Rowman & Littlefield। পৃষ্ঠা 322। আইএসবিএন 978-0-7618-4945-2When a reporter asked him: “Do you believe there is a Creator who creates all in the universe?" Professor Chen Ning Yang (1922- ), a Chinese Nobel Prize winner in physics in 1957, answered: “I think it is hard for me to directly say 'yes' or 'no'. I can only say that when we more and more understand the wonderful structures in the nature, no matter whether we directly or indirectly ask the question, there does exist the question you ask: is there someone or God who takes charge of all? I think it is a question that will never be finally answered. (The reporter asked: 'Is it because what man knows is too limited?') On one hand, yes; on the other hand, we can have a feeling that the universe will not be created so wonderful without an ultimate goal.” Professor Yang held agnosticism here. 
  98. Victor M. Amela (জুন ২০, ২০১৭)। "Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Prize in physics for the electroweak theory." (PDF)। La Contra - La Vanguardia। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৮ অক্টোবর ২০১৮I am a practising atheist. 
  99. Craver, Carl F (২০০৮)। "Axelrod, Julius"। Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography19। Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons। পৃষ্ঠা 122। Although he became an atheist early in life and resented the strict upbringing of his parents’ religion, he identified with Jewish culture and joined several international fights against anti-Semitism. 
  100. Robert W. Baloh। "Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction"। Neurology.org। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৪ মে ২০১২Although anti-Semitism was again on the rise in Austria, it is unlikely that anti-Semitism was a factor in the hostility toward Bárány because he was an agnostic who did not believe in Zionism. 
  101. George Beadle, An Uncommon Farmer: The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. CSHL Press. 2003. p. 273. আইএসবিএন ৯৭৮০৮৭৯৬৯৬৮৮৭. Beadle's views on this occasion were somewhat more tempered than David's characterization of him as a "vehement atheist," and from his earliest days "intolerant of religion and other forms of superstition.
  102. "J. Michael Bishop"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৮ জুলাই ২০১২ 
  103. https://books.google.com/books?id=bDHwCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=sydney+brenner+atheist+Candid+Science+VI:+More+Conversations+with+Famous+Scientists&source=bl&ots=DuNWarx1yJ&sig=HJV6P93x4czv3Kb5EqQdDaPIc98&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjBjeKX4fbOAhUE9h4KHUBAA4YQ6AEIJzAB#v=onepage&q=sydney%20brenner%20atheist%20Candid%20Science%20VI%3A%20More%20Conversations%20with%20Famous%20Scientists&f=false
  104. Crick, Francis (১৯৮৮)। What mad pursuit : a personal view of scientific discovery। New York: Basic Books। পৃষ্ঠা 10। আইএসবিএন 0-465-09138-5 
  105. Crick, Francis (৩–৫ ফেব্রুয়ারি ১৯৯০)। "How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism"Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee International Conference Souvenir। Vijayawada, India: Positive Atheism। ২১ মে ২০১২ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  106. Steyn, Mark (অক্টোবর ২০০৪)। "The Twentieth-Century Darwin"The Atlantic Monthly 
  107. Siegel, Ralph M.; Callaway, Edward M. (২০০৪)। "Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω"PLoS Biology2 (12): e419। doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020419PMID 17593891পিএমসি 535570অবাধে প্রবেশযোগ্যFrancis Crick was an evangelical atheist. 
  108. Highfield, Roger (২০ মার্চ ২০০৩)। "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?"The Telegraph। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited." 
  109. "Max Delbrück"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৪ মে ২০১২ 
  110. Walter Shropshire (২০০৭)। Max Delbrück and the New Perception of Biology, 1906–1981: A Centenary Celebration, University of Salamanca, October 9–10, 2006। AuthorHouse। পৃষ্ঠা 155। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4343-1435-2As far as I know, he never identified himself as a member of any formal church or religious faith, but neither did he reject religion. He had a deeply felt respect for all faiths, believing that regardless of the details, they all fill basically the same human aspirations. 
  111. Ruse, Michael। "Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning by Christian de Duve (Introductory essay)"The International Society for Science and Religion library project। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  112. Trevor Illtyd Williams (১৯৮৪)। Howard Florey, Penicillin and After। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 363। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-858173-4As an agnostic, the chapel services meant nothing to Florey but, unlike some contemporary scientists, he was not aggressive in his disbelief. 
  113. Paolo Mazzarello; Henry A. Buchtel; Aldo Badiani (১৯৯৯)। The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 34। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-852444-1It was probably during this period that Golgi became agnostic (or even frankly atheistic), remaining for the rest of his life completely alien to the religious experience. 
  114. "Frederick Hopkins"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৮ জুলাই ২০১২ 
  115. "Obituary: Andrew Huxley"। The Economist। জুন ১৬, ২০১২। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৪ মে ২০১৩He did not even mind the master's duty of officiating in chapel, since he was, he explained, not atheist but agnostic (a word usefully invented by his grandfather), and was “very conscious that there is no scientific explanation for the fact that we are conscious.” 
  116. Jacob, The Statue Within, pp 20–57. Quotes from pp 42 and 53.
  117. Dawson, M. Joan. Paul Lauterbur and the Invention of MRI. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Print. "Paul became an atheist, revering intellectual honesty and the quest for truth."
  118. http://www.nndb.com/people/110/000125732/
  119. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ২১ অক্টোবর ২০১৬ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৩০ মে ২০১৭ 
  120. Medawar, Peter (১৯৯৬)। The strange case of the spotted mice and other classic essays on science (5th সংস্করণ)। Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press। পৃষ্ঠা 207–211। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-286193-1 
  121. Lubbock, Richard। "Peaks, Dust, & Dappled Spots"Books in Canada: The Canadian Review of Books। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫In his final chapter de Duve turns to the meaning of life, and considers the ideas of two contrasting Frenchmen: a priest, Teilhard de Chardin, and an existentialist and atheist, Jacques Monod. 
  122. Horowitz, Norman H. (আগস্ট ১৯৯৮)। "T. H. Morgan at Caltech: A Reminiscence"Genetics149 (4): 1629–1632। PMID 9691024পিএমসি 1460264অবাধে প্রবেশযোগ্য। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed only what could be proven. He was said to be an atheist, and I have always believed that he was. Everything I knew about him—his scepticism, his honesty—was consistent with disbelief in the supernatural. 
  123. Pontecorvo, G. (নভেম্বর ১৯৬৮)। Quote from p. 353। "Hermann Joseph Muller. 1890–1967"। Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society14: 348–389। doi:10.1098/rsbm.1968.0015জেস্টোর 769450Muller, who through Unitarianism had become an enthusiastic pantheist, was converted both to atheism and to socialism. 
  124. Tauber, Alfred I.; Chernyak, Leon (১৯৯১)। Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology : From Metaphor to Theory: From Metaphor to Theory। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 5। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-534510-0... his personal religious commitment was to atheism, although he received strict Christian religious training at home. Metchnikoff's atheism smacked of religious fervor in the embrace of rationalism and science. 
  125. Costantino Ceoldo (২০১২-১২-৩১)। "Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০ জুলাই ২০১৩Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism. 
  126. Nurse, Paul (২০০১)। "Sir Paul Nurse – Biographical"। Nobelprize.org। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫I gradually slipped away from religion over several years and became an atheist or to be more philosophically correct, a sceptical agnostic. 
  127. Windholz, George (সেপ্টেম্বর ১৯৮৬)। "Pavlov's Religious Orientation"। Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion25 (3): 320। doi:10.2307/1386296জেস্টোর 1386296Pavlov's follower E.M. Kreps asked him whether he was religious. Kreps writes that Pavlov smiled and replied: "Listen, good fellow, in regard to [claims of] my religiosity, my belief in God, my church attendance, there is no truth in it; it is sheer fantasy. I was a seminarian, and like the majority of seminarians, I became an unbeliever, an atheist in my school years." 
  128. Reville, William (এপ্রিল ২০, ২০০৬)। "A bright journey to atheism, or a road that ignores all the signs?"The Irish Times। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 
  129. "John E. Sulston"NNDB। Soylent Communications। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ এপ্রিল ২০১৪ 
  130. "Adofo Pérez Esquivel"। Nobel Prize Committee। 
  131. "Albert Szent-Györgyi"। NNDB.com। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৮ জুলাই ২০১২ 
  132. Deirdre Barrett (২০১০)। Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose। W. W. Norton & Company। পৃষ্ঠা 21–22। আইএসবিএন 978-0-393-06848-1Tinbergen had never been a religious man. Wartime atrocities, however, had highlighted the absence of a deity for him while both sides invoked one aligned with themselves, and this turned him into a militant atheist. 
  133. Highfield, Roger (২০ মার্চ ২০০৩)। "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?"The Telegraph। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০১৫ 

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