নাস্তিক দার্শনিকদের তালিকা

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন

এখানে ঐ সকল দার্শনিকদের তালিকা প্রদান করা হয়েছে যারা ইতিহাসের পাতায় নাস্তিক হিসাবে পরিচিত। মূলত ব্যাপক অর্থে নাস্তিক্যবাদ বলতে বুঝায়, উপাস্যদের অস্তিত্বের প্রতি বিশ্বাস প্রত্যাখ্যান করা। নেতিবাচক অর্থে, নাস্তিক্যবাদ হলো, উপাস্যের কোনো অস্তিত্ব নেই এই অর্থে বিশেষভাবে অবস্থান করা। সর্বাধিকভাবে, কেবল উপাস্যদের অস্তিত্বের প্রতি বিশ্বাসের অভাবের কারণে নাস্তিক্যবাদ গড়ে উঠে। এটি উইকিপিডিয়ার বিভিন্ন নাস্তিক দার্শনিকদের তালিকা সংক্রান্ত প্রবন্ধের একটি সংকলন।এই তালিকা জীবিত এবং মৃত দার্শনিকদের, যারা দার্শনিকচিন্তা দ্বারা ও উল্লেখযোগ্য কার্যক্রম বা সামাজিক অবস্থার সঙ্গে প্রাসঙ্গিক, এবং যারা ​​প্রকাশ্যে নাস্তিক হিসাবে নিজেদের প্রকাশ করেছেন।

দার্শনিক[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. "This degree of radicalism Sydney could endure. But what of a man who had signed up as a communist immediately on his arrival, who was unashamedly an atheist, a realist where philosophers were expected to be idealists, who freely mixed with students when he was expected to meet them only in classes or, very occasionally, in their studies? Trouble was bound to loom ahead." John Passmore: 'Anderson, John (1893–1962)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [১] (accessed April 29, 2008).
  2. From a Freethought Radio podcast: Avalos: "I was a child evangelist and preacher, and I used to go around a lot of churches in Arizona specifically [...] it was coming along sort of in stages [...] slowly through high school, and so by the first year of college, I pretty much had realised that I am an atheist." [...] Annie Laurie Gaylor: "What made you an atheist?" Avalos: "Well I always say, reading the Bible did. The more I read the Bible and I tried to use the Bible to convert other people to Christianity, I realised, well I have to learn the arguments of the other religions I'm trying to convert. And the more I tried to learn the arguments and compare them to mine, the more I realised, I could make the arguments for their side just as well. Then it went into, you know, how do I know that anything I believe is true? And eventually I realised I have no evidence for any religion being true, and at that point, I was an atheist." FFRF podcast Fighting Words: The Origins of Religious Violence (mp3), June 2, 2007 (accessed April 25, 2008).
  3. "Conversely, an absolute denial of God's existence is equally meaningless, since verification is impossible. However, despite this assertion, Ayer may be considered a practical atheist: one who sees no reason to worship an invisible deity." 2000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt, by James A. Haught, Prometheus Books, 1996, p. 276.
  4. "I was thoroughly irritated when Freddie Ayer, the philosopher who was at Christ Church with me, presented me with a book inscribed: 'To my fellow atheist'." Lord Dacre, 'I liked the elegant, frivolous life...', Daily Telegraph, January 28, 2003, Pg. 17.
  5. Frederiek Depoortere (২০০৯)। Badiou and Theology। Continuum International Publishing Group। পৃষ্ঠা 110। আইএসবিএন 9780567032621In the light of all this, it may not come as a surprise that Badiou, himself a self-proclaimed atheist and anti-cleric, though he recognizes the breakthrough wrought by Cantor in mathematics, nevertheless accuses him of 'the folly of trying to save God'. 
  6. "The reverend Dr Tom Ambrose was sacked yesterday by his bishop for being "arrogant, aggressive, rude, bullying, high-handed, disorganised and at times petty", as a Church of England tribunal put it. Twice, he even spat at parishioners. You might expect that, as an atheist, I might rub my hands over this clerical outrage." Julian Baggini, Thought for the day - BBC Radio Bristol, blog entry, April 11, 2008 (accessed April 22, 2008).
  7. Multiple quotes from Bakunin substantiating his atheist views [২] ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ২৫ জানুয়ারি ২০০০ তারিখে.
  8. "Feuerbach's book received criticism from two quarters: expectedly from Christian theologians but surprisingly, from the atheists Max Stirner and Bruno Bauer." Van A. Harvey, Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007 (accessed May 22, 2008).
  9. "[Beauvoir] remained an atheist until her death." Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Accessed April 21, 2008)
  10. "I cannot be angry at God, in whom I do not believe." Haught (1996), p. 293
  11. James E. Crimmins (১৯৮৬)। Bentham on Religion: Atheism and the Secular Society। University of Pennsylvania Press। পৃষ্ঠা 95। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৪ মে ২০১৩Bentham was an atheist and in no sense of the word could he be described as a theologian. 
  12. Ana Marta González, সম্পাদক (২০১২)। Contemporary Perspectives on Natural Law: Natural Law As a Limiting Concept। Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.। পৃষ্ঠা 81। আইএসবিএন 9781409485667In sum, with Hume's agnosticism and Bentham's atheism, the fundamental voluntarist thesis about the gulf between the divine and the human mind reaches new depths, and this serves to reinforce and radicalize the rejection, begun by Pufendorf, of Grotian rights-theory as the appropriate means of formulating the conventionalist theory of the moral life. 
  13. James E. Crimmins (১৯৯০)। Secular Utilitarianism: Social Science and the Critique of Religion in the Thought of Jeremy Bentham। Clarendon Press। পৃষ্ঠা 283। আইএসবিএন 9780198277415Making allowance for Adams's cautious phrasing, this is a concise statement of Bentham's secular positivism, but it is also important to note the conviction with which Bentham held his atheism. 
  14. "Some years ago, without realizing what it might mean, I accepted a dinner invitation from a Jewish colleague for dinner on Friday night. I should say that my colleague had never appeared particularly orthodox, and he would have known that I am an atheist." Simon Blackburn, Religion and Respect ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ৩ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৯ তারিখে (pdf) on his website, August 2004 (accessed April 23, 2008.)
  15. " Asked if Rand was an atheist, [Yaron] Brook said, "Yes, she was - and I have been since the age of 6, before I read Ayn Rand. But more than anti-religion, she was for reason. She spends time on the positive. She believed the way to evaluate things in life and reality is through reason, rational thought. That's what we try to emphasize." " George Hohmann, 'Ayn Rand relevant today, speaker says', Charleston Daily Mail (West Virginia), June 1, 2009, Pg. P5A (accessed 5 June 2009).
  16. R. Carnap: Intellectual Autobiography. in: P. A. Schilpp (editor): The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Cambridge University Press, La Salle (Illinois) 1963.
  17. Martin Gardner said "Carnap was an atheist..." A Mind at Play: An Interview with Martin Gardner ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৫ মে ২০০৮ তারিখে, by Kendrick Frazier, Skeptical Inquirer, March/April 1998 (Accessed July 2, 2007).
  18. "Carnap had a modest but deeply religious family background, which might explain why, although he later became an atheist, he maintained a respectful and tolerant attitude in matters of faith throughout his life." Buldt, Bernd: "Carnap, Paul Rudolf", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 20 p.43. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.

গ্রন্থতালিকা[সম্পাদনা]

  • জেমস এ. হাউট (১৯৯৬)। 2,000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt। প্রমিথিউস বুকস। আইএসবিএন 1-57392-067-3