বেসরকারি সংস্থা

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন
H.E. Pekka Haavisto, Minister for International Development of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Finland at the first World NGO Day, Helsinki, Finland in 2014

বেসরকারি সংস্থা (ইংরেজি: Nongovernmental Organizations,[১] বা, Nongovernment Organizations),[২][৩] যা সাধারণতঃ এনজিও (NGOs)[৪] হিসাবে পরিচিত, হলো এমন আন্তর্জাতিক সংস্থা বা প্রতিষ্ঠান যারা সাধারণত অলাভজনক ও স্বাধীনভাবে সরকার কর্তৃক সরাসরিভাবে সুনির্দিষ্ট নিয়ন্ত্রণের বাহিরে (যদিও এগুলোতে প্রায়শঃই সরকার কর্তৃক অর্থায়ন করা হয়)[৫] মানবতার, শিক্ষা, স্বাস্থ্যসেবা, জনসাধারণের নীতি, সামাজিক, মানবাধিকার, পরিবেশগত এবং অন্যান্য ক্ষেত্রে সক্রিয়ভাবে তাদের লক্ষ্য অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তনে নিয়োজিত।[৬][৭][৮][৯]

আরও দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. US dictionaries record only the unhyphenated spelling, and this also recorded by some UK dictionaries, e.g. Collins English Dictionary
  2. Claiborne, N (২০০৪)। "Presence of social workers in nongovernment organizations"। Soc Work49: 207–18। doi:10.1093/sw/49.2.207PMID 15124961 
  3. Ship Monitoring Rescues of Migrants Refuses to Be Rescued, The New York Times
  4. The term NGO is so common and its expansion so rare that all dictionaries have an entry for the abbreviation but many don't have one for the expansion, or they even explain it by using the abbreviation, e.g. Collins English Dictionary
  5. [১]
  6. [২]
  7. [৩]
  8. [৪]
  9. [৫]

অতিরিক্ত পঠন[সম্পাদনা]

  • Hilton, Matthew et al. eds. The Politics of Expertise: How NGOs Shaped Modern Britain (2013)
  • Watkins, Susan Cotts, Ann Swidler, and Thomas Hannan. 2012. "Outsourcing Social Transformation: Development NGOs as Organizations." Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 38, pp. 285–315, PDF
  • Davies, T. 2014. NGOs: A New History of Transnational Civil Society. New York: Oxford University Press. আইএসবিএন ৯৭৮-০-১৯-৯৩৮৭৫৩-৩.
  • Velusamy M. Non Governmental Organisation, Dominant Publishers & Distribution Ltd, New Delhi
  • Mark Butler, with Thulani Ndlazi, David Ntseng, Graham Philpott, and Nomusa Sokhela. NGO Practice and the Possibility of Freedom Church Land Programme, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 2007 Churchland.co.za
  • Olivier Berthoud, NGOs: Somewhere between Compassion, Profitability and Solidarity Envio.org.ni, PDF Edinter.net Envio, Managua, 2001
  • Terje Tvedt, 19982/2003: Angels of Mercy or Development Diplomats. NGOs & Foreign Aid, Oxford: James Currey
  • Steve W. Witt, ed. Changing Roles of NGOs in the Creation, Storage, and Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries (Saur, 2006). আইএসবিএন ৩-৫৯৮-২২০৩০-৮
  • Cox, P. N. Shams, G. C. Jahn, P. Erickson and P. Hicks. 2002. Building collaboration between NGOs and agricultural research iNGOs – Die Gewerkschaften in Guinea während der Unruhen 2007EPU Research Papers: Issue 03/07, Stadtschlaining 2007 (জার্মান)
  • Lyal S. Sunga, "Dilemmas facing INGOs in coalition-occupied Iraq", in Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations, edited by Daniel A. Bell and Jean-Marc Coicaud, Cambridge Univ. and United Nations Univ. Press, 2007.
  • Lyal S. Sunga, "NGO Involvement in International Human Rights Monitoring, International Human Rights Law and Non-Governmental Organizations" (2005) 41-69.
  • Werker & Ahmed (2008): What do Non-Governmental Organizations do?
  • Charnovitz, Steve (১৯৯৭)। "Two Centuries of Participation: NGOs and International Governance"। Michigan Journal of International Law18: 183–286। 
  • Abahlali baseMjondolo Rethinking Public Participation from Below, 'Critical Dialogue', 2006
  • Akpan S. M (2010): Establishment of Non-Governmental Organizations (In Press).
  • Edward A. L. Turner (2010) Why Has the Number of International Non-Governmental Organizations Exploded since 1960?, Cliodynamics, 1, (1).
  • Eugene Fram & Vicki Brown, How Using the Corporate Model Makes a Nonprofit Board More Effective & Efficient – Third Edition (2011), Amazon Books, Create Space Books.
  • David Lewis and Nazneen Kanji (2009): Non-Governmental Organizations and Development. New York: Routledge.
  • Issa G. Shivji (2007): Silence in NGO Discourse: The Role and Future of NGOs in Africa. Nairobi: Fahamu.
  • Jens Steffek and Kristina Hahn (2010): Evaluating Transnational NGOs: Legitimacy, Accountability, Representation. New York: Palgrave, Macmillan.
  • Yearbook of International Organizations, produced by the Union of International Associations.

বহিঃসংযোগ[সম্পাদনা]