উইকিপিডিয়া:উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্ধৃতিদান

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উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্ধৃতিদান

উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্ধৃতিদান করার পূর্বে সর্তকতা

যেকোনো সূত্রের ক্ষেত্রে, বিশেষ করে অজানা কোনো উৎস থেকে, আপনার অবশ্যই সতর্কতা অবলম্বন করা উচিত এবং সম্ভব হলে উইকিপিডিয়ার তথ্যের নির্ভুলতা স্বাধীনভাবে যাচাই করা উচিত। বিভিন্ন উদ্দেশ্যে, বিশেষ করে প্রাতিষ্ঠানিক ক্ষেত্রে উইকিপিডিয়া গ্রহণযোগ্য একটি উৎস নাও হতে পারে;[১] অবশ্য, কিছু অধ্যাপক ও শিক্ষক উইকিপিডিয়ার উৎসযুক্ত বিষয়বস্তু সম্পূর্ণ বাতিলের খাতায় ফেলে দেন, আর এটি বিশেষভাবে তখনই করা হয় যখন কোনো তথ্যকে সমর্থন করা হয় না।

আমরা বিশেষভাবে সতর্ক করি, যখন উইকিপিডিয়ার কোনো তথ্য গবেষণামূলক প্রকল্পে তথ্যসূত্র হিসেবে বিবেচিত হয়। উইকিপিডিয়া ও অন্যান্য বিশ্বকোষগুলো প্রচলিত প্রাতিষ্ঠানিক ব্যবহার, সাধারণত কোনো সমস্যার প্রচলিত কারণ ও মূল অংশগুলো নির্দেশ করা, তথ্যসূত্র দেওয়া এবং গ্রন্থ বা রচনার বিভিন্ন সংস্করণের তালিকা খুঁজে পাবার ক্ষেত্রে সীমাবদ্ধ, কিন্তু সেটি নিজে কোনো সূত্র হিসেবে গণ্য হয় না। মনে রাখবে উইকিপিডিয়া হচ্ছে উইকি, যার অর্থ পৃথিবীর যে কেউ, কোনো নিবন্ধ সম্পাদনা করতে পারেন। সেই সাথে নির্ভুল তথ্য মুছে ফেলা ও ভুল তথ্য যোগ করাও হতে পারে, যা একজন পাঠক হয়তো ধরতে পারবেন না।

যদিও, সেই সাথে আমরা আত্মবিশ্বাসী যে উইকিপিডিয়া, এখানে থাকা বেশিরভাগ নিবন্ধেরই ভালো সারাংশ প্রদান করে। আরো জানতে গবেষণার ক্ষেত্রে উইকিপিডিয়া, প্রাতিষ্ঠানিক ব্যবহার, এবং আমাদের দাবিত্যাগ পাতাগুলি দেখুন।

A wiki is an unusual medium, and as such doesn't conform well to the usual book-citation formats. Wiki is not paper, so you will need to use an electronic-citation format instead. The exact format will depend upon the citation guide that you are following, but here are a few general principles to consider:

  • A special citation tool is available to assist you. On the left of every article, there is a "Cite this article" link. Clicking it will bring you to a listing of relevant information, as well as automatically generated citations in several styles. Note that it is still your responsibility to ensure the citation meets all requirements.
  • You should not cite any particular author or authors for a Wikipedia article, in general. Wikipedia is collaboratively written. However, if you do need to find the list of authors of a particular article, you can check the Page history. Authors are listed only by IP address or chosen user name; you normally cannot verify and often cannot even guess at their identities.
  • Your citation should normally list both the article title and Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, much as you would for an article in a paper publication. Every article should be a separate citation.
  • Most citation styles will likely require the full article URL. You can click "Permanent link" in the toolbox at the left of this page. This lets the URL include a unique identifier such that you can tie your reference back to the exact version of the article you are referencing. It may or may not be desirable to adopt this approach, depending upon the context of your reference. This lets you show what you saw and ignore any changes made after you accessed the page. If greater brevity is desired, you can use the regular URL, or optionally just the site URL (e.g. http://en.wikipedia.org/ for an English article), because an article URL can be inferred from an article title.
  • The citation style may request the full date and time of the article revision you are using. If you use the permanent link feature, this may not be necessary. However, the date and time of the last revision can be found at the bottom of every page (above the copyright notice).

উদাহরণ[সম্পাদনা]

The following examples assume you are citing the Wikipedia article on Plagiarism, using the version that was submitted on July 22, 2004, at 10:55 UTC, and that you retrieved the article on August 10, 2004, except as otherwise noted.

APA ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

Citation in APA style, as recommended by the American Psychological Association: [১]

  • Plagiarism. (2004, July 22). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism

Note that in APA 5th Edition style, the following rules apply for the reference:

  • For reference books, which includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, and glossaries, the book title is preceded by the word In. It is not italicized, but the book title following it is.
  • The book title appears in sentence case. You capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.
  • The URL must go to the exact page that you reference.
  • No punctuation follows the URL.
  • The term or article title appears in the author position. Use sentence case for multiple-word terms or titles, where you capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.

The proper in-text citation is ("Plagiarism," 2004) for a paraphrased passage or ("Plagiarism," 2004, para. #) if you directly quote the material. Note that para. # represents the paragraph number in the page where the information appears. If there are multiple headings on the page, it is also acceptable to place the subheading and then a paragraph number within that heading.

For example, proper in-text citation for a direct quote of fewer than 40 words is:

"Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgment of the original work" ("Plagiarism," 2004, "Definition," para. 1).

If the quoted material is more than 40 words, use the block quote format instead.

As another example, the proper in-text citation for a paraphrased passage is:

Plagiarism is stealing the works of others ("Plagiarism," 2004).

APA Style requires that you provide a separate reference entry for each term you are citing in your paper because 1) you must provide a URL for each term that goes directly to the term, and 2) you must provide the publication date for each term separately. However, if you are discussing the "online encyclopedia" itself, not a term in the encyclopedia, you might need to reference the site itself. The proper citation of Wikipedia, the site, as referenced in APA 5th Edition Style is:

  • Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.wikipedia.org

The in-text citation formation would be (Wikipedia, 2004).

MLA ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

Citation in MLA style, as recommended by the Modern Language Association:

  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 Aug. 2004. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Note that MLA style calls for both the date of publication (or its latest update) and the date on which the information was retrieved. According to the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook, there is now information required about any foundation involved. Also note that many schools/institutions slightly change the syntax. Another example:


  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Be sure to double check the exact syntax your institution requires.

For citation of Wikipedia as a site, use:

MHRA ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

Citation in MHRA style, as recommended by the Modern Humanities Research Association:

  • Wikipedia contributors, 'Plagiarism', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350> [accessed 10 August 2004]

শিকাগো ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

Citation in Chicago style:

  • Wikipedia contributors, "Plagiarism," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350 (accessed August 10, 2004).

Note that the Chicago Manual of Style states that "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies."

CBE/CSE ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

Citation in CBE/CSE style, as recommended by the Council of Science Editors:

  • Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2004 Jul 22, 10:55 UTC [cited 2004 Aug 10]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350.

টিউরাবিয়ান ধরন[সম্পাদনা]

The following are examples of how to cite Wikipedia articles according to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). আইএসবিএন ০২২৬৮১৬২৬৫ (cloth), আইএসবিএন ০২২৬৮১৬২৭৩ (paper).

Note on Turabian style: Please understand that Turabian does not have rules that cover anything like Wikipedia. These examples are based on "reading between the lines" and assimilating rules from various not-so-similar cases that Turabian does cover. If the party to which you are submitting your paper is particularly strict, you might want to find out if they have their own adaptation of Turabian that would apply in this case. Alternately, you could always consult with the party before the deadline to make sure it's acceptable.

বিশেষ দ্রষ্টব্য[সম্পাদনা]

1"Plagiarism," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia; (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC) [encyclopedia on-line]; available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered Species; Internet; retrieved 10 August 2004.

2Wikipedia contributors, "Marketing."Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing (Accessed August 10, 2004)

রচনাপঞ্জি[সম্পাদনা]

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered Species. Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004.

(According to Turabian 6th edition, ¶9.8, for entries in the bibliography, "the first line of each entry is flush left, and any run over lines are indented five spaces". This presentation does not follow that rule.)

Parenthetical reference[সম্পাদনা]

("Plagiarism," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia)

or

(Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism")

তথ্যসূত্রের তালিকা[সম্পাদনা]

Plagiarism. 22 July 2003, 10:55 UTC. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism. Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004.

(Indenting is like that of the bibliography.)

উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্ধৃতিদান[সম্পাদনা]

The Harvard Journal of Law & Technology has adopted the following format for citations to articles in Wikipedia:

  • [Signal] Wikipedia, [article], http://en.wikipedia/wiki/[article] [(optional other parenthetical)] (as of [date], [time] GMT).

Here is an example:

  • See Wikipedia, Bluebook, http://en.wikipedia/wiki/Bluebook (describing history and application of the Bluebook) (as of Mar. 21, 2006, 20:50 GMT).

This format derives from Rule 18.2 of the 18th edition of the Bluebook, though the date parenthetical differs slightly. The parenthetical here is designed to specify the exact version of the article to which the author is referring, recognizing that articles can and do change often. The date and time used should correspond exactly to the latest version listed in the article's Wikipedia history page that states the proposition for which you are citing it. Use of GMT conforms to the timestamp format used in those history entries (e.g., use 24-hour notation to avoid AM/PM).

BibTeX entry[সম্পাদনা]

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

When using the LaTeX package url (\usepackage{url} somewhere in the preamble) which tends to give much more nicely formatted web addresses, the following may be preferred:

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "\url{http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350}",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. "Anthropology 333 syllabus from [[American River College]]" (PDF)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০০৬-০২-০৭Do NOT use Wikipedia or other online or print encyclopedias as a source for your paper.  ইউআরএল–উইকিসংযোগ দ্বন্দ্ব (সাহায্য)