||উইকিপিডিয়ার খেলাঘর পাতায় আপনাকে স্বাগতম। এই পাতাটি উইকিপিডিয়ায় সম্পাদনামূলক বিবিধ পরীক্ষা-নিরীক্ষা করার জন্য উন্মুক্ত। এই পাতাটি ব্যবহার তথা সম্পাদনার জন্য এখানে ক্লিক করুন, অথবা ওপরে ডান পাশে থাকা ‘সম্পাদনা’ লিংকে ক্লিক করুন। এরপর আপনার পরীক্ষাটি করুন, এবং সম্পাদনা বাক্সের নিচে থাকা ‘সংরক্ষণ’ বোতামে ক্লিক করার মাধ্যমে তা সংরক্ষণ করুন। আপনার সম্পাদনাটি অবিলম্বে প্রদর্শিত হবে। মনে রাখবেন যে আপনার সম্পাদনা স্থায়ীভাবে থাকবে না। অব্যবহৃত অবস্থায় থাকলে এই পাতাটি নির্দিষ্ট সময় পর পরিস্কার করা হয়। তাছাড়া অন্য ব্যবহারকারীর পরীক্ষা-নিরীক্ষা দ্বারাও আপনার সম্পাদনাটি প্রতিস্থাপিত হতে পারে। অনুগ্রহপূর্বক এই পাতায় কপিরাইটকৃত লেখা, ধ্বংসাত্মক বা ব্যক্তিগত তথ্যাদি প্রদান করা থেকে বিরত থাকবেন।
এই পাতাটিতে যদি এই নোটিশটি ব্যতীত অন্য কিছু দেখতে পান তবে ধরে নিতে পারেন এটি বর্তমানে ব্যবহৃত হচ্ছে আর সেক্ষেত্রে আপনি খেলাঘর ২ অথবা খেলাঘর ৩-এ আপনার সম্পাদনা পরীক্ষা করতে পারেন। এছাড়া আপনি যদি উইকিপিডিয়ায় অ্যাকাউন্ট করে থাকেন তবে এখানে ক্লিক করে আপনার নিজস্ব খেলাঘরও তৈরি করে নিতে পারেন। ধন্যবাদ।
(Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The grouping was originally known as "BRIC" before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs; all five are G-20 members.
As of 2013, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people with a combined nominal GDP of US$16.039 trillion and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves. As of 2014, the BRICS nations represented 18 percent of the world economy.
Brazil held the chair of the BRICS group in 2014, having hosted the group's sixth summit in 2014.
The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in September 2006, beginning a series of high-level meetings. A full-scale diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 May 2008.
First BRIC summit[সম্পাদনা]
The BRIC grouping's first formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June 2009, with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending. The summit's focus was on means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions, and discussed how the four countries could better co-operate in the future. There was further discussion of ways that developing countries, such as the BRIC members, could become more involved in global affairs.
In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg summit, the BRIC nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be "diversified, stable and predictable". Although the statement that was released did not directly criticise the perceived "dominance" of the US dollar – something that Russia had criticised in the past – it did spark a fall in the value of the dollar against other major currencies.
Entry of South Africa[সম্পাদনা]
In 2010, South Africa began efforts to join the BRIC grouping, and the process for its formal admission began in August of that year. South Africa officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010, after being formally invited by the BRIC countries to join the group. The group was renamed BRICS – with the "S" standing for South Africa – to reflect the group's expanded membership. In April 2011, the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, attended the 2011 BRICS summit in Sanya, China, as a full member.
The BRICS Forum, an independent international organisation encouraging commercial, political and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations, was formed in 2011. In June 2012, the BRICS nations pledged $75 billion to boost the lending power of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, this loan was conditional on IMF voting reforms. In late March 2013, during the fifth BRICS summit in Durban, South Africa, the member countries agreed to create a global financial institution which they intended to rival the western-dominated IMF and World Bank. After the summit, the BRICS stated that they planned to finalise the arrangements for this new development bank by 2014. However, disputes relating to burden sharing and location have slowed down the agreements.
At the BRICS leaders meeting in St. Petersburg in September 2013, China committed $41 billion towards the pool; Brazil, India and Russia $18 billion each; and South Africa $5 billion. China, holder of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves and who is to contribute the bulk of the currency pool, wants a greater managing role, said one BRICS official. China also wants to be the location of the reserve. "Brazil and India want the initial capital to be shared equally. We know that China wants more," said a Brazilian official. "However, we are still negotiating, there are no tensions arising yet." On 11th October 2013, Russia's Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said that a decision on creating a $100 billion fund designated to steady currency markets would be taken in early 2014. The Brazilian finance minister, Guido Mantega stated that the fund would be created by March 2014. However, by April 2014, the currency reserve pool and development bank had yet to be set up, and the date was rescheduled to 2015. One driver for the BRICS development bank is that the existing institutions primarily benefit extra-BRICS corporations, and the political significance is notable because it allows BRICS member states "to promote their interests abroad... and can highlight the strengthening positions of countries whose opinion is frequently ignored by their developed American and European colleagues."
In March 2014, at a meeting on the margins of the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, the BRICS Foreign Ministers issued a communique that "noted with concern, the recent media statement on the forthcoming G20 Summit to be held in Brisbane in November 2014. The custodianship of the G20 belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character." In light of the tensions surrounding the 2014 Crimean crisis, the Ministers remarked that "The escalation of hostile language, sanctions and counter-sanctions, and force does not contribute to a sustainable and peaceful solution, according to international law, including the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter." This was in response to the statement of Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, who had said earlier that Putin might be barred from attending the G20 Summit in Brisbane.
In April 2014, Russian Ambassador at Large Vadim Lukov remarked that the dollar may be replaced by the ruble and other national currencies of the BRICS counties, and that "A large part of the fund goes toward saving the Euro and the national currencies of developed countries. Given that governance of the IMF is in the hands of western powers, there is little hope for assistance from the IMF in case of an emergency. That is why the currency reserve pool would come in very handy."
In July 2014, the Governor of the Russian Central Bank, Elvira Nabiullina, said that the "BRICS partners the establishment of a system of multilateral swaps that will allow to transfer resources to one or another country, if needed" in an article which concluded that "If the current trend continues, soon the dollar will be abandoned by most of the significant global economies and it will be kicked out of the global trade finance. Washington's bullying will make even former American allies choose the anti-dollar alliance instead of the existing dollar-based monetary system."
Over the weekend of 13 July 2014 when the final game of the World Cup was held, and in advance of the BRICS Fortaleza summit, Putin met his homologue Dilma Rouseff to discuss the BRICS development bank, and sign some other bilateral accords on air defense, gas and education. Rouseff said that the BRICS countries "are among the largest in the world and cannot content themselves in the middle of the 21st century with any kind of dependency." The Fortaleza summit was followed by a BRICS meeting with the UNASUR presidents in Brasilia, where the development bank and the monetary fund were introduced. The development bank will have capital of $50 billion with each country contributing $10 billion, while the monetary fund will have $100 billion at its disposal.
On 15 July 2014, the first day of the BRICS 6th summit in Fortaleza, Brazil, the group of emerging economies signed the long-anticipated document to create the $100 billion BRICS Development Bank and a reserve currency pool worth over another $100 billion. Documents on cooperation between BRICS export credit agencies and an agreement of cooperation on innovation were also inked.
The grouping has held annual summits since 2009, with member countries taking turns to host. Prior to South Africa's admission, two BRIC summits were held, in 2009 and 2010. The first five-member BRICS summit was held in 2011. The most recent BRICS summit took place in Fortaleza, Brazil, from 14 to 16 July 2014.
|Date(s)||Host country||Host leader||Location||Notes|
|1st||16 June 2009||Russia||Dmitry Medvedev||Yekaterinburg (House Sevastianova)|
|2nd||15 April 2010||Brazil||Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva||Brasília||Guests: Jacob Zuma (President of South Africa) and Riyad al-Maliki (Foreign Minister of the Palestinian National Authority)|
|3rd||14 April 2011||China||Hu Jintao||Sanya (Sheraton Sanya Resort)||First summit to include South Africa alongside the original BRIC countries.|
|4th||29 March 2012||India||Manmohan Singh||New Delhi (Taj Mahal Hotel)|
|5th||26–27 March 2013||South Africa||Jacob Zuma||Durban (Durban ICC)|
|6th||14–16 July 2014||Brazil||Dilma Rousseff||Fortaleza (Centro de Eventos do Ceará)
|BRICS New Development Bank and reserve currency pool agreements signed.
Guest: Leaders of Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)
|Country||Population||GDP (nominal)||HFCE||Government spending||Exports||Imports||GDP per capita (PPP)||Literacy rate||Life expectancy (years, avg.)||HDI|
|Brazil||201,046,886||$2,695.9 bn||$1,266.3 bn||$846.6 bn||$256.0 bn||$238.8 bn||$13,623||93.5%||74.6||.730 (high)|
|Russia||143,451,702||$2,021.9 bn||$671.6 bn||$414.0 bn||$542.5 bn||$358.1 bn||$17,708||99.6%||69.7||.788 (high)|
|India||1,210,193,422||$1,824.8 bn||$737.9 bn||$281.0 bn||$309.1 bn||$500.3 bn||$3,829||74.04%||64.2||.554 (medium)|
|China||1,354,040,000||$8,227.0 bn||$1,835.3 bn||$2,031.0 bn||$2,021.0 bn||$1,780.0 bn||$9,161||95.1% ||72.7||.699 (medium)|
|South Africa||51,770,560||$384.3 bn||$173.8 bn||$95.27 bn||$101.2 bn||$106.8 bn||$11,375||93%||51.2||.629 (medium)|
have highlighted potential divisions and weaknesses in the grouping, including significant economic instabilities, disagreements between the members over UN Security Council reform, and India and China's disputes over territorial issues.
Current BRICS leaders[সম্পাদনা]
- 6th BRICS summit
- New Development Bank
- Economic Cooperation Organization
- Emerging and growth-leading economies
- Group of Two
- Group of 77
- IBSA Dialogue Forum, a tripartite grouping of India, Brazil and South Africa
- List of BRICS leaders
- List of potential superpowers
- MINT, an group of middle powers of Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey
- Next Eleven
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- "Syria Seeks to Join Shanghai Group, BRICS – Minister"। RIA Novosti। 27 April 2013। সংগৃহীত 7 November 2013।
- "India quiere a Argentina en los BRICS, el club de los emergentes"। Clarin। 3 May 2014। সংগৃহীত 12 May 2014।
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- "Brazil Stocks In Bear Market As Economy Struggles"। Investors.com। 26 June 2013। সংগৃহীত 29 June 2013।
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- Centre for Rising Powers, University of Cambridge
- The BRICS Post – News website with a focus on the BRICS.
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