২০শ শতাব্দীতে মুসলিম ইতিহাসের সময়রেখা

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন


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২০শ শতাব্দীত (১৯০১–২০০০ খ্রিষ্টাব্দ) (১৩১৮ - ১৪২১ হিজরি)[সম্পাদনা]

  • ১৯০১: আবদুল আজিজ ইবনে সৌদকে রিয়াদে বন্দী করা হয়। ফরাসী বাহিনী মরক্কো দখল করে।
  • ১৯০২: ইসলামী বিপ্লবের নেতা ও ইসলামী প্রজাতন্ত্র ইরানের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা রুহুল্লাহ খোমেনির জন্ম।
  • ১৯০৩: সাইয়েদ আবুল আ'লা মওদুদী (জামায়াতে ইসলামীর প্রতিষ্ঠাতা) এর জন্ম।
  • ১৯০৪: আলজেসিরাস সম্মেলনের অধীনে মরক্কো ফরাসি আশ্রিত রাজ্যে পরিণত হয়।
  • ১৯০৫: এর প্রভাবের মূল ক্ষেত্র মিশর সহ প্যারিসে সালাফি আন্দোলনের সূচনা।
  • ১৯০৬: মুসলিম ব্রাদারহুডের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা হাসান আল-বান্না মিশরে জন্ম গ্রহণ করেন।
  • ১৯০৬: নিখিল ভারত মুসলিম লীগ ঢাকায় (বাংলা) প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়।
  • ১৯০৬: Uprising of merchants and clergy leads Shah Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar to relent to demands for reform, which lead to the Constitution of 1906, providing for a limited male franchise and a National Consultative Assembly which convened that year.
  • ১৯০৭: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
  • ১৯০৮: Constitutional monarchy (2.phase) in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
  • ১৯০৯: Armenian Christians suffer a genocide in Adana Vilayet, Turkey at the hands of the Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire. 15,000–30,000 were killed.
  • ১৯১১: War of Tripolli between Ottoman Empire and Italy. Treaty of Ouchy (1912).
  • ১৯১২: Sarekat Islam cooperative founded in Indonesia, part of the Muhammadiyah reform movement.
  • ১৯১২: Balkan wars. The coalition of four Balkan countries defeat Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
  • ১৯১২: Treaty of Fez makes Morocco a French and Spanish protectorate, triggering the Fez riots.
  • ১৯১৩: মোহাম্মদ আলী জিন্নাহ অল ইন্ডিয়া মুসলিম লীগে যোগ দেন।
  • ১৯১৩: Putsch by the Committee of Union and Progress ("CUP") faction of the Young Turks, known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte, results in resignation of Grand Vizier. In control of the government, CUP withdraws from the London Peace Conference and moves the empire close to Germany in the approach to war.
  • ১৯১৩: Bulgarians were massacred by the Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire. 50,000–60,000 Thracian Bulgarians were murdered, which was around 20% of the Bulgarian population in Thrace at that time. Most of the villages with a Bulgarian population were destroyed and the survivors expelled from their places of origin.[১]
  • ১৯১৪: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed. World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany.
  • ১৯১৪-১৯১৮: Ottoman Empire carries out genocides of several communities, such as Assyrian Christians. 200,000 to 275,000 were killed. About half of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire perished.
  • ১৯১৫: মিশর একটি ব্রিটিশ আশ্রিত রাজ্য হয়ে ওঠে।
  • ১৯১৫: উসমানীয় সাম্রাজ্য জোটকে ক্যানাক্কালেতে (দার্দানেলিস) পরাজিত করে।
  • ১৯১৬: By the Sykes–Picot Agreement Britain and France plan post-war division of their post-war spheres of influence following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
  • ১৯১৬: Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule in Hijaz, Palestine and Syria. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway.
  • ১৯১৬: Muslims and Hindus join together in Lucknow Pact seeking more self-rule in India and other reforms from the British government.
  • ১৯১৭: Britain issues the Balfour Declaration pledging British support for the creation of a Jewish national homeland.
  • ১৯১৮: জামাল আবদেল নাসেরের জন্ম।
  • ১৯১৮: Tripolitanian Republic declares independence from Italian Libya and becomes the first republican government in the Arab world.
  • ১৯১৯: After losing virtually their entire empire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. World War I ends on November 11. Syria becomes a French protectorate.
  • ১৯১৯: The first revolution in Egypt led by Saad Zaghlul against British occupation.
  • ১৯১৯: After the Third Anglo-Afghan War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state.
  • ১৯২০: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation.
  • ১৯২০: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia.
  • ১৯২০-১৯২২: তুরস্কের স্বাধীনতা যুদ্ধ
  • ১৯২০:Armenia first defeated by the Turkish nationalists then the Soviets.
  • ১৯২০: Short-lived Hashemite Kingdom of Syria establish, which surrendered to French forces after the Battle of Maysalun.
  • ১৯২১: Abdullah I of Jordan in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. Faisal I of Iraq is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
  • ১৯২১: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
  • ১৯২১: Death of Alahazrat Molana Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi.
  • ১৯২১: সোভিয়েত রাশিয়া এবং তুরস্কের মধ্যে কারস চুক্তি।
  • ১৯২১: রেজা খান পাহলভী পারস্যের বৃহত্তর রক্তপাতহীন অভ্যুত্থান পরিচালনা করেন।
  • ১৯২২: Armistice of Mudanya. Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate, prompting Sultan Mehmed VI to flee Turkey; the 600‑year‑old Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist.
  • ১৯২২: Egypt unilaterally granted independence by the United Kingdom.
  • ১৯২৩: Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey's independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of Turkey. Ankara officially replaces Constantinople as Turkish capital.
  • ১৯২৪: Albanian Mussulmans' Congress breaks with caliphate and reforms Islam in Albania by suppressing polygamy and the compulsory veiling of women.
  • ১৯২৪: The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate and sends the remaining members of the Ottoman House into exile in a move that begins the extensive de-Islamization of the public sphere in Turkey.
  • ১৯২৪: King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina, leading to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hejaz.
  • ১৯২৫: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
  • ১৯২৫: The Great Syrian Revolt breaks out across the various statelets of Syrian and Lebanon against French rule, which ultimately was put down by force in 1927.
  • ১৯২৬: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud assumes title of King of Najd and Hejaz.
  • ১৯২৬: Lebanon proclaimed a parliamentary republic under French protectorate.
  • ১৯২৭: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
  • ১৯২৮: তুরস্ককে ধর্মনিরপেক্ষ রাষ্ট্র হিসাবে ঘোষণা করা হয়।
  • ১৯২৮: Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood, a neo-Salafi movement dedicated to social, political, and moral reform in Egypt. The movement would later spread to other Arab nations and to Pakistan.
  • ১৯২৯: Militant conflicts between Palestinians parties and Jewish settlers in Jerusalem over access to the Wailing Wall.
  • ১৯৩১: A General Islam Conference held in Jerusalem over the Zionism question with delegates from North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia issues first Pan Arabic resolution.
  • ১৯৩২: লিগ অফ নেশনস ইরাককে স্বাধীনতা প্রদান করে।
  • ১৯৩২–৪১: Ma Bufang and his Chinese Muslim soldiers massacre Tibetans in Qinghai Province. The motive was ethnic cleansing of Tibetans and destruction of their culture, resulting in thousands of casualties.
  • ১৯৩৪: War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the Yemen. Peace treaty of Taif. Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
  • ১৯৩৫: Iran ("Land of the Aryans") becomes the official name of Persia.
  • ১৯৩৬: Increased Jewish immigration leads to the Arab revolt in Palestine. The demonstrations turned violent in 1937 and met with violent repression from the British Army.
  • ১৯৩৮: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died.İsmet İnönü second president of Turkey.
  • ১৯৩৯: Parliament of ex France protectorate Republic of Hatay decides to join Turkey
  • ১৯৩৯: দ্বিতীয় বিশ্বযুদ্ধের সূচনা।
  • ১৯৪০: All India Muslim League at Lahore formally resolves in favor of an independent Muslim state.
  • ১৯৪১: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah.
  • ১৯৪১: Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood's South Asian counterpart.
  • ১৯৪২: Birth of M. Fetullah Gulen, the founder of Hizmet Movement of Turkey.
  • ১৯৪৫: End of World War II. Indonesia declares independence from the Netherlands. New leader Sukarno decides not to implement sharia law nationwide.
  • ১৯৪৫: কায়রোতে বৈঠকে আরব লীগ গঠিত।
  • ১৯৪৬: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
  • ১৯৪৭: India gains independence from Britain, and Pakistan is created from the region's Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.
  • ১৯৪৮: Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah dies in Karachi.
  • ১৯৪৯: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces.
  • ১৯৪৯: Second East Turkestan Republic overthrown and re-incorporated into Xinjiang.
  • ১৯৫১: লিবিয়া স্বাধীন হয়।
  • ১৯৫২: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate by the free officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser.
  • ১৯৫৩: Backed by American and British intelligence agencies, General Zahedi leads a coup against Mohammed Mossadegh, returning the Shah to power. Death of King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina. Hizb ut-Tahrir founded
  • ১৯৫৪: Algerian War of Independence begins. Gamal Abdel Nasser bans the Muslim Brotherhood
  • ১৯৫৬: Morocco becomes independent. Tunisia becomes independent. Tripartite Aggression in Egypt caused by nationalization of the Suez Canal.
  • ১৯৫৭: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes president. Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins. The Federation of Malaya, later renamed Malaysia, gains independence from Britain.
  • ১৯৫৮: October 7, President Iskander Mirza declares Martial Law. General Ayub Khan assumes the powers as Chief Martial Law Administrator.
  • ১৯৫৮: "Free Officers" of the army overthrow Hashemite monarchy of Iraq in 14 July Revolution.
  • ১৯৬০: Mali and Senegal become independent. Great Turk scholar Bedi-az-Zaman said Nursi had died in Urfa (Turkey).
  • ১৯৬০: Military coup in Turkey purges executive, military, judiciary branches and university.
  • ১৯৬১: Kuwait becomes independent as British mandate. Kuwait becomes the first Gulf country with a written constitution and parliament.
  • ১৯৬২: আলজেরিয়া স্বাধীন হয়।
  • ১৯৬২: Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
  • ১৯৬২: মুসলিম ওয়ার্ল্ড লীগ (রাবেতা আল-আলম আল-ইসলামী) মক্কায় প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়।
  • ১৯৬২: উত্তর ইয়েমেন গৃহযুদ্ধ শুরু হয়।
  • ১৯৬৩: Ba'athists and Arab nationalist sympathizers in the army engineer Ramadan Revolution seeing the government as insufficiently pan-Arabic and pro-Communist.
  • ১৯৬৩: The White Revolution, a series of major economic reforms by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi intended to effect industrial development and redistribute rural land in Iran, though popular also increase social tensions leading to massive pro-Islamic rioting in June.
  • ১৯৬৩: Birth of great Historian Mudaser Ijaz at Old Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan
  • ১৯৬৫: American Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated. The second Indo-Pakistani War results in a stalemate. Malaysia grants independence to Singapore. In Indonesia, anti-communist witch-hunts give political Islamists an advantage over Communists.
  • ১৯৬৭: In the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan, Israel seizes control of Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. More Palestinians are displaced.
  • ১৯৬৭: Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt as Sadat moves away from Soviet Union in wake of Six-Day War.
  • ১৯৬৭: People's Republic of South Yemen becomes independent.
  • ১৯৬৭: Biafra attempts to succeed from Nigeria triggering Nigerian Civil War.
  • ১৯৬৮: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed. Israel begins building Jewish settlements in territories occupied during the Six-day war.
  • ১৯৬৮: Ba'ath Party stages a bloodless military coup in Iraq.
  • ১৯৬৯: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
  • ১৯৭০: Death of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt and continues preparation of the army for the next war with Israel.
  • ১৯৭১: পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের বাঙালিরা শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানের নেতৃত্বে পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান থেকে স্বাধীনতার যুদ্ধ শুরু করে, পাকিস্তানী বাহিনী শক্ত হাতে সামরিক প্রতিশোধের প্ররোচনা দেয়। ভারত যুদ্ধে প্রবেশ করে, তৃতীয় ভারত-পাকিস্তান যুদ্ধের কারণ হয়ে দাঁড়ায়, যা বাংলাদেশ গঠনের মাধ্যমে সমাপ্ত হয়।
  • ১৯৭২: During the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is known as the Munich massacre.
  • ১৯৭৩: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
  • ১৯৭৩: Yom Kippur War, also known as 1973 Arab-Israeli War, amounting to a failed attempt to recapture the Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights by Egypt and Syria from Israel.
  • ১৯৭৪: Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt, announced by Sadat in an "October paper," representing a move away from Nasser-era socialism, an opening to western capital and a withdrawal from dependency on the USSR
  • ১৯৭৪: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation conference held in Lahore. Ahmadis declared kafir (non-Muslim) in Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
  • ১৯৭৪: Turkey launched a military invasion on Cyprus 1974 following the coup d'état engineered by the Greek junta.
  • ১৯৭৫: Indonesia invades and occupies East Timor.
  • ১৯৭৫: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by his half-brother's son Faisal bin Musa'id.
  • ১৯৭৫: Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America. Warith Deen Muhammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy, renaming it American Muslim Mission.
  • ১৯৭৫: Sectarian civil war begins in Lebanon. Before it would end in 1991 outside powers, including Syria and Israel, would become involved, more than 100,000 would die and a million refugees would leave Lebanon.
  • ১৯৭৭: General Zia ul-Haq topples Prime Minister Bhutto in bloodless coup. Zia committed himself to a policy of "Islamization" of Pakistan.
  • ১৯৭৮: Imam Musa Sadr, a Lebanese Shi'a leader is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya.
  • ১৯৭৮: As part of the Camp David Accords, Egypt becomes the first Arab nation to recognize Israel. Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
  • ১৯৭৮: Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan seized power in Afghanistan in the Saur Revolution. Civil war ensues.
  • ১৯৭৯: Years of political tension and unrest in Iran climax as the autocratic Pahlavi regime is overthrown by a popular revolution. In its place, Iranian clerics led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini establish an Islamic government and declare Iran an Islamic Republic. Groups of students loyal to the new regime seize control of the American embassy in Tehran and take 66 officials hostage.
  • ১৯৭৯: Religious students in Saudi Arabia seize control of the Haram of Mecca, sparking a two-week standoff with Saudi security forces. The crisis comes to an end when Saudi forces storm the mosque, killing 237 of the 300 men and apprehending the remainder. All surviving conspirators in the plot are publicly executed.
  • ১৯৭৯: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.
  • ১৯৭৯: Death of influential Islamist leader Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.
  • ১৯৮০: Muhammad Asad publishes his Magnum opus The Message of The Qur'an
  • ১৯৮০: Iraq invades Iran, beginning the 8-year Iran–Iraq War.
  • ১৯৮০: In a move not recognized internationally, Israel confirms its capital as the united Jerusalem.
  • ১৯৮০: General Evren deposes Turkish prime minister in a coup in which 500,000 were arrested. The military would rule for three years, then Evren acted as president until the end of 1989.
  • ১৯৮১: The 444-day Iranian hostage crisis comes to an end. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated by militants opposed to his autocratic policies and recognition of Israel Succeeded by Muhammad Hosni Mubarak.
  • ১৯৮২: Israel invades Lebanon.
  • ১৯৮৩; Second Sudanese Civil War breaks out after central government attempts to impose shariah law on non-Muslims. Two million would die in the course of the 22-year war, which resulted in the grant of automy to the southern part of the state.
  • ১৯৮৭: First Intifada begins as Palestinians engage in widespread civil disobedience and strikes. The uprising lasts until 1993.
  • ১৯৮৮: The Iran–Iraq War comes to an end following much loss of life.
  • ১৯৮৮: Nagorno-Karabakh War, an ethnic conflict between ethnic Armenians and supported by the Republic of Armenia in the southeast corner of former Soviet Republic Azerbaijan.
  • ১৯৮৮: President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan was killed in a plane crash caused by a mysterious mid-air explosion.
  • ১৯৮৮: "October riots," a series of demonstrations and other street disturbances mainly by young people, take place in Algeria, contributing to the pressure which together with dismal economic conditions led to the abandonment of the one party system and adoption of a constitution with democratic elements.
  • ১৯৮৯: On February 14 Shia religious leader and Iranian head of state Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issues fatwā calling on "zealous Muslims" to kill Salman Rushdie and the publishers of Satanic Verses, which is proclaimed a libel against "islam, the Prophet, and the Koran."
  • ১৯৮৯: On June 3 Ayatollas Kohmeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei as the Supreme Leader of Iran.
  • ১৯৮৯: The Soviet Union withdraws the last of its forces from Afghanistan. Afghan mujahideen factions begin fighting each other.
  • ১৯৯০: Iraq invades Kuwait.
  • ১৯৯০: North Yemen and South Yemen reunite.
  • ১৯৯১: A coalition of United States-led forces attacks Iraq and reverses its attempted military annexation of Kuwait. US-backed economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. The sanctions are widely blamed for subsequent dramatic increases in famine, birth defects, and infant mortality amongst Iraqis.
  • ১৯৯১: The Soviet Union collapses. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, all predominantly Muslim former Soviet republics, become independent. Armenian military occupies one-sixth of Azerbaijani territory expelling over 800,000 ethnic Azerbaijanis from the occupied lands and Armenia proper.
  • ১৯৯১: United Somali Congress topples regime of military dictator Siad Barre. The national military forces disband and form regional militias as part of Somali Civil War.
  • ১৯৯১: Algerian Civil War begins after Islamic party Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut (FIS)), which opposed state planning and supported state implementation of sharia laws, wins substantial majority of first stage of parliamentary elections. A military coup takes place and the FIS is banned and leaders imprisoned. The war would last until 2002.
  • ১৯৯২: The 400-year-old Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India is destroyed by Hindu extremists, sparking widespread religious rioting across India.
  • ১৯৯২: United Nations Forces, mainly Americans, enter Somalia.
  • ১৯৯৩: Oslo I Accord between Israel and PLO signed.
  • ১৯৯৪: Jordan becomes the second of Israel's Arab neighbors to recognize Israel.
  • ১৯৯৪: First war between Russia and Chechen Republic begins.
  • ১৯৯৫: Israel Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing orthodox Jew over Oslo Accord.
  • ১৯৯৬: Taliban forces seize control of most of Afghanistan and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  • ১৯৯৬: After leading his Welfare Party to a surprise victory in the 1995 general elections, Necmettin Erbakan becomes the first pro-Islamic Prime Minister of modern Turkey.
  • ১৯৯৬: Al Jazeera Satellite Channel with loan from the Emir of Qatar launches Arab language satellite news service.
  • ১৯৯৮: Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic to have the nuclear power as it successfully conducted five nuclear tests on May 28.
  • ১৯৯৮: Amidst growing criticism of his economic policies, longtime Indonesian leader General Suharto resigns after over thirty years in power.
  • ১৯৯৮: Former deputy prime minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, a vocal critic of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of sodomy.
  • ১৯৯৮: Bombing of US Embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam engineered by Al-Qaeda.
  • ১৯৯৯: Kargil war breaks out between Pakistan and India. Pakistan's Army captured strategic points in Indian administered Kashmir including the areas of Point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker ridge and the Siddle Ridge. Later on Pakistan took control of the entire Kargil District from India but withdraw after intense international diplomatic pressure. However, point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker Ridge and Saddle Ridge remains in its control.
  • ১৯৯৯: Death of Jordan's King Hussein. King Hussein's son Abdullah is declared king of Jordan.
  • ১৯৯৯: Indonesia relinquishes control of East Timor, which is granted independence under a UN-sponsored act of self-determination.
  • ১৯৯৯: General Pervez Musharraf seizes control of Pakistan after a military coup against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
  • ২০০০: Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip begin the Al-Aqsa Intifada, prompted by Ariel Sharon's visit to a disputed religious site holy to both Jews and Muslims.
  • ২০০০: President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies of a heart attack. His son Bashar al-Assad is elected President by Syria's Majlis Al Shaa'b (Parliament).
  • ২০০০: Russia occupies Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, in Second Chechen War.
  • ২০০০: General Parvez Musharraf overthrows the democratically elected government of Nawaz Sharif in Pakistan.
  • ২০০০: Suicide attack on USS Cole kills 17 US sailors.
  • By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to almost one-fifth (20%) of the total driven by improved healthcare infrastructure.

আরও দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Nikolai Vukov (২০১৫)। "Resettlement Waves, Historical Memory and Identity Construction: The Case of Thracian Refugees in Bulgaria"Migration in the Southern Balkans। IMISCOE Research Series। Springer International। পৃষ্ঠা 63–84। doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13719-3আইএসবিএন 9783319137186। ২০১৭-০৭-২২ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা।