সুং রাজবংশ

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
সুং রাজবংশ
Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms 923 CE.png
৯৬০–১২৭৯
A map showing the territory of the Song, Liao, and Xia dynasties. The Song dynasty occupies the east half of what constitutes the territory of the modern People's Republic of China, except for the northernmost areas (modern Inner Mongolia province and above). The Xia occupy a small strip of land surrounding a river in what is now Inner Mongolia, and the Liao occupy a large section of what is today northeast China.
Northern Song in 1111
রাজধানী Bianjing (汴京)
(960–1127)

Lin'an (臨安)
(1127–1276)
ভাষাসমূহ Chinese
ধর্ম Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism

Yin and Yang.svg Taoism
Chinese folk religion

সরকার সম্রাট
Emperor
 -  960 – 976 Emperor Taizu
 -  1126 – 1127 Emperor Qinzong
 -  1127 – 1162 Emperor Gaozong
 -  1278 – 1279 Emperor Bing
ঐতিহাসিক যুগ Postclassical Era
 -  Established by Zhao Kuangyin ৯৬০
 -  Alliance on the Sea 1115-1125
 -  Jingkang Incident 1127
 -  Beginning of Mongol invasion 1235
 -  Surrender of Lin'an 1276
 -  Battle of Yamen marks end of Song rule March 19, ১২৭৯
আয়তন
 -  962 est. ১০,৫০,০০০ বর্গ কি.মি. (৪,০৫,৪০৭ বর্গ মাইল)
 -  1111 est. ২৮,০০,০০০ বর্গ কি.মি. (১০,৮১,০৮৬ বর্গ মাইল)
 -  1142 est. ২০,০০,০০০ বর্গ কি.মি. (৭,৭২,২০৪ বর্গ মাইল)
জনসংখ্যা
 •  1120 আনুমানিক ১১৮ 
মুদ্রা Jiaozi, Huizi, Chinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins etc.
বর্তমানে অংশ  চীন
 হংকং
 মাকাও
 ভিয়েতনাম
সতর্কীকরণ: "মহাদেশের" জন্য উল্লিখিত মান সম্মত নয়

টেমপ্লেট:History of China

সুং রাজবংশ (চীনা: 宋朝; পিনয়িন: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao; Cantonese Jyutping: sung3 ciu4; আইপিএ: [sʊ̂ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) ছিলো চীন শাসন করা একটি সাম্রাজ্যের অধিকারী, যারা শাসন ক্ষমতায় ৯৬০ থেকে ১২৭৯ পর্যন্ত অধিষ্টিত ছিলো।

আরও দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

টীকা[সম্পাদনা]

^ a: During the reign of the Song Dynasty the world population grew from about 250 million to approximately 330 million, a difference of 80 million. Please also see Medieval demography.

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  • Adshead, S. A. M. (২০০৪)। T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History। New York: Palgrave Macmillan। আইএসবিএন 1-4039-3456-8  (hardback).
  • Anderson, James A. (২০০৮)। "'Treacherous Factions': Shifting Frontier Alliances in the Breakdown of Sino-Vietnamese Relations on the Eve of the 1075 Border War"। in Wyatt, Don J.। Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period। New York: Palgrave MacMillan। পৃ: 191–226। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4039-6084-9 
  • Bai, Shouyi (২০০২)। An Outline History of China (Revised সংস্করণ)। Beijing: Foreign Languages Press। আইএসবিএন 7-119-02347-0 
  • Bol, Peter K. (২০০১)। "The Rise of Local History: History, Geography, and Culture in Southern Song and Yuan Wuzhou"। Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 61 (1): 37–76। জেএসটিওআর 3558587ডিওআই:10.2307/3558587 
  • Brook, Timothy (১৯৯৮)। The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China। Berkeley: University of California Press। আইএসবিএন 978-0-520-22154-3 
  • Brose, Michael C. (২০০৮)। "People in the Middle: Uyghurs in the Northwest Frontier Zone"। in Wyatt, Don J.। Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period। New York: Palgrave MacMillan। পৃ: 253–289। আইএসবিএন 978-1-4039-6084-9 
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (২০০৬)। East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History। Boston: Houghton Mifflinআইএসবিএন 0-618-13384-4 
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (১৯৯৯)। The Cambridge Illustrated History of China। Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressআইএসবিএন 0-521-66991-X  (paperback).
  • Embree, Ainslie Thomas; Gluck, Carol (১৯৯৭)। Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching। Armonk: ME Sharpe। আইএসবিএন 1-56324-264-8 
  • Chan, Alan Kam-leung; Clancey, Gregory K.; Loy, Hui-Chieh (২০০২)। Historical Perspectives on East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine। Singapore: Singapore University Pressআইএসবিএন 9971-69-259-7 
  • Fairbank, John King; Goldman, Merle (২০০৬) [১৯৯২]। China: A New History (2nd enlarged সংস্করণ)। Cambridge; London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Pressআইএসবিএন 0-674-01828-1 
  • Fraser, Julius Thomas; Haber, Francis C. (১৯৮৬)। Time, Science, and Society in China and the West। Amherst: University of Massachusetts Pressআইএসবিএন 0-87023-495-1 
  • Gernet, Jacques (১৯৬২)। Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276। Translated by H. M. Wright। Stanford: Stanford University Pressআইএসবিএন 0-8047-0720-0 
  • Graff, David Andrew; Higham, Robin (২০০২)। A Military History of China। Boulder: Westview Press। 
  • Guo, Qinghua (১৯৯৮)। "Yingzao Fashi: Twelfth-Century Chinese Building Manual"। Architectural History: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain 41: 1–13। 
  • Hall, Kenneth (১৯৮৫)। Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia। Hawaii: University of Hawaii Pressআইএসবিএন 0-8248-0959-9 
  • Hansen, Valerie (২০০০)। The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600। New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company। আইএসবিএন 0-393-97374-3 
  • Hargett, James M. (১৯৮৫)। "Some Preliminary Remarks on the Travel Records of the Song Dynasty (960–1279)"। Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR): 67–93। 
  • Hargett, James M. (১৯৯৬)। "Song Dynasty Local Gazetteers and Their Place in The History of Difangzhi Writing"। Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 56 (2): 405–442। জেএসটিওআর 2719404ডিওআই:10.2307/2719404 
  • Hartwell, Robert M. (১৯৮২)। "Demographic, Political, and Social Transformations of China, 750-1550"। Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 42 (2): 365–442। জেএসটিওআর 2718941ডিওআই:10.2307/2718941 
  • Hymes, Robert P. (১৯৮৬)। Statesmen and Gentlemen: The Elite of Fu-Chou, Chiang-Hsi, in Northern and Southern Sung। Cambridge: Cambridge University Press। আইএসবিএন 0-521-30631-0 
  • Hsu, Mei-ling (১৯৯৩)। "The Qin Maps: A Clue to Later Chinese Cartographic Development"। Imago Mundi 45: 90–100। ডিওআই:10.1080/03085699308592766 
  • Levathes, Louise (১৯৯৪)। When China Ruled the Seas। New York: Simon & Schusterআইএসবিএন 0-671-70158-4 
  • Lorge, Peter (২০০৫)। War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795 (1st সংস্করণ)। New York: Routledge 
  • McKnight, Brian E. (১৯৯২)। Law and Order in Sung China। Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Mohn, Peter (২০০৩)। Magnetism in the Solid State: An Introduction। New York: Springer-Verlag। আইএসবিএন 3-540-43183-7 
  • Mote, F. W. (১৯৯৯)। Imperial China: 900–1800। Harvard: Harvard University Press 
  • Needham, Joseph (১৯৮৬a)। Science and Civilization in China: Volume 1, Introductory Orientations। Taipei: Caves Books। 
  • Needham, Joseph (১৯৮৬b)। Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth। Taipei: Caves Books। 
  • Needham, Joseph (১৯৮৬c)। Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering। Taipei: Caves Books। 
  • Needham, Joseph (১৯৮৬d)। Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3: Civil Engineering and Nautics। Taipei: Caves Books। 
  • Needham, Joseph (১৯৮৬e)। Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7: Military Technology; The Gunpowder Epic। Taipei: Caves Books। 
  • Paludan, Ann (১৯৯৮)। Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors। London: Thames & Hudsonআইএসবিএন 0-500-05090-2 
  • Peers, C. J. (২০০৬)। Soldiers of the Dragon: Chinese Armies 1500 BC-AD 1840। Oxford: Osprey Publishing। 
  • Rossabi, Morris (১৯৮৮)। Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times। Berkeley: University of California Pressআইএসবিএন 0-520-05913-1 
  • Rudolph, R. C. (১৯৬৩)। "Preliminary Notes on Sung Archaeology"। The Journal of Asian Studies 22 (2): 169–177। জেএসটিওআর 2050010ডিওআই:10.2307/2050010 
  • Sastri, Nilakanta, K.A. (১৯৮৪)। The CōĻas। Madras: University of Madras। 
  • Schafer, Edward H. (১৯৫৭)। "War Elephants in Ancient and Medieval China"। Oriens 10 (2): 289–291। জেএসটিওআর 1579643ডিওআই:10.2307/1579643 
  • Sen, Tansen (২০০৩)। Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400। Manoa: Asian Interactions and Comparisons, a joint publication of the University of Hawaii Press and the Association for Asian Studies। আইএসবিএন 0-8248-2593-4 
  • Shen, Fuwei (১৯৯৬)। Cultural flow between China and the outside world। Beijing: Foreign Languages Press। আইএসবিএন 7-119-00431-X 
  • Sivin, Nathan (১৯৯৫)। Science in Ancient China। Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing। 
  • Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (১৯৯৩)। "The Tangut Royal Tombs near Yinchuan"। Muqarnas: an Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture X: 369–381। 
  • Sung, Tz’u (১৯৮১)। The Washing Away of Wrongs: Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth-Century China। translated by Brian E. McKnight। Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Pressআইএসবিএন 0-89264-800-7 
  • Temple, Robert (১৯৮৬)। The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention। with a foreword by Joseph Needham। New York: Simon and Schuster। আইএসবিএন 0-671-62028-2 
  • Veeck, Gregory; Pannell, Clifton W.; Smith, Christopher J.; Huang, Youqin (২০০৭)। China's Geography: Globalization and the Dynamics of Political, Economic, and Social Change। Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers। আইএসবিএন 0-7425-5402-3 
  • Wagner, Donald B. (২০০১)। "The Administration of the Iron Industry in Eleventh-Century China"। Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 44 (2): 175–197। ডিওআই:10.1163/156852001753731033 
  • Wang, Lianmao (২০০০)। Return to the City of Light: Quanzhou, an eastern city shining with the splendour of medieval culture। Fujian People's Publishing House। 
  • West, Stephen H. (১৯৯৭)। "Playing With Food: Performance, Food, and The Aesthetics of Artificiality in The Sung and Yuan"। Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 57 (1): 67–106। জেএসটিওআর 2719361ডিওআই:10.2307/2719361 
  • Wright, Arthur F. (১৯৫৯)। Buddhism in Chinese History। Stanford: Stanford University Press 
  • Yuan, Zheng (১৯৯৪)। "Local Government Schools in Sung China: A Reassessment"। History of Education Quarterly 34 (2): 193–213। জেএসটিওআর 369121ডিওআই:10.2307/369121 

অতিরিক্ত পঠন[সম্পাদনা]

  • Cotterell, Arthur. (২০০৭)। The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire। London: Pimlico। পৃ: 304 pages.। আইএসবিএন 978-1-84595-009-5 
  • Gascoigne, Bamber (২০০৩)। The Dynasties of China: A History। New York: Carroll & Graf। আইএসবিএন 1-84119-791-2 
  • Gernet, Jacques (১৯৮২)। A history of Chinese civilization। Cambridge: Cambridge University Press। আইএসবিএন 0-521-24130-8 
  • Giles, Herbert Allen (1939). A Chinese biographical dictionary (Gu jin xing shi zu pu). Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh. (see here [১] for more)
  • Kruger, Rayne (২০০৩)। All Under Heaven: A Complete History of China। Chichester: John Wiley & Sons। আইএসবিএন 0-470-86533-4 
  • Tillman, Hoyt C. and Stephen H. West (1995). China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

বহি:সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা]

 
উইকিমিডিয়া কমন্স অনুসন্ধান
  উইকিমিডিয়া কমন্সে নিচের বিষয় সংক্রান্ত মিডিয়া রয়েছে::
পূর্বসূরী
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Dynasties in Chinese history
960–1279
উত্তরসূরী
Yuan Dynasty

টেমপ্লেট:Song Dynasty topics