ব্যবহারকারী:Lazy-restless/বিবর্তন বনাম সৃষ্টি বিতর্কের বিষয়সমূহ

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন

বিবর্তন বনাম সৃষ্টি বিতর্কের বহু বিষয় রয়েছে। এই বিষয়গুলো বিশ্বজগৎ সৃষ্টি সম্পর্কিত বিতর্ককারী মহলের বিশ্বাসের পার্থক্য হতে উদ্ভূত হয়েছে। তবে সহজভাবে বলতে গেলে, বিবর্তনবাদী ও সৃজনবাদী উভয় দলই প্রাকৃতিক নির্বাচনকে জীবের পরিবেশের সঙ্গে অভিযোজনের কারণ হিসেবে স্বীকার করে নেয়। উক্ত বিতর্কের প্রধান বিষয় হল বিবর্তনের চারটি মূল ক্ষেত্র - এগুলো হল জ্যোতিরবৈজ্ঞানিক, ভূতাত্ত্বিক, রাসায়নিক, এবং জৈবিক

পরিভাষা[সম্পাদনা]

বিবর্তন/সৃজন বিতর্ককে সঠিকভাবে মূল্যায়ন করতে হলে বিবর্তন ও সৃজনের সংজ্ঞা জানা প্রয়োজন। সৃজন বলতে ঈশ্বর কর্তৃক শূন্য হতে মহাবিশ্ব ও তার মধ্যস্থ সকল বস্তু সৃষ্টির ঘটনাকে বোঝায়।[১] যদিও সৃষ্টিবাদী মহলের মাঝেই বিভিন্ন দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি বিদ্যমান, নব্য পৃথিবী সৃষ্টিবাদীদের সঙ্গেই বিবর্তনবাদীদের সবচেয়ে বেশি মতপার্থক্য আছে বলে মনে করা হয়। বিবর্তন বলতে একটি প্রাকৃতিক প্রক্রিয়াকে বোঝানো হয় যার মাধ্যমে রাসায়নিক উপাদান হতে জীবের উৎপত্তি ঘটে এবং আরও বিশদভাবে বললে, বিগ ব্যাং বা মহা বিস্ফোরণ হতে বিশ্বের উৎপত্তির মতবাদকে বোঝানো হয়।[২] This is also called 'macro-evolution'. 'Micro-evolution' generally relates to the changes to species that result in specification and adaptation. The term 'evolution' in this article refers to 'macro-evolution'. There should also be a clarification concerning the word 'theory'. In the context of science, a theory is an explanation for a natural phenomena that has been tested time and time again to be shown with near certainty to be true.[৩][৪]

Dr. Carl Sagan

বিবর্তনবাদের পক্ষে[সম্পাদনা]

As it is the case that evolution is the majority-held opinion, evolution has many well-known advocates including:

  • Dr. Richard Dawkins, who holds his doctorate in zoology, is an outspoken opponent of the creationist movement, and author of several books on that topic.[৫]
  • Bill Nye, who holds a Bachelor in mechanical engineering from Cornell University. He starred in the lead role of the television series Bill Nye the Science Guy, which won several Emmy Awards. He is also the Chief Executive Officer of the Planetary Society.[৬]
  • Professor Lawrence Krauss, who is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author, and an outspoken critic of creation.[৭]
  • The late Dr. Carl Sagan, who received several medals in relation to his work for NASA, and was a greatly respected astronomer.[৮]

সৃষ্টিবাদের পক্ষে[সম্পাদনা]

While those holding to a belief in creation are a minority in the scientific community, there a fair number of notable scientists who do hold to this position:

জ্যোতির্বিজ্ঞান[সম্পাদনা]

বিবর্তন[সম্পাদনা]

The majority of scientists hold to the belief that the Big Bang Theory is the most plausible explanation for the beginning of the universe.[১৩] The Big Bang Theory states that the collision of molecules (approximately 15 billion years ago) created a massive explosion of energy and matter, which condensed to form the early universe.[১৪] After the Big Bang, gravity pulled together groups of particles to create stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae, and everything else that is known to exist in the universe.[১৪]

Evidence often cited in support of the Big Bang Theory:

  • The fact that the universe is expanding.[১৫] It is reasoned that, if the universe began at a single point, and then exploded outward, then the universe should still be expanding.
  • The presence of Cosmic Background Radiation.[১৫] According to the Big Bang Theory, microwaves would have been spread throughout the universe after the Big Bang, creating a sort of warm afterglow.[১৩] This has been observed to be true; there is a background of microwaves in the universe.
  • The fact that distant stars and galaxies are visible.[১৫] Some of these celestial objects are hundreds of thousands of light-years from Earth. It can be reasoned, then, that the universe is old (which is a primary tenet of the Big Bang Theory).

সৃজন[সম্পাদনা]

A minority of scientists hold to the belief that God created the universe as depicted in Genesis. According to Chapter 1, God created the universe in six days. Specifically, the Earth was created on day 1, and the heavenly bodies were created on day four.[১৬] This was accomplished by God speaking; God spoke the universe into being.[১৬] A separate account of creation is also given in Chapter 2 of Genesis.

Evidence often cited in support of creation:

  • The fact that the universe is expanding.[১৭] It is stated in the Bible that God, "Stretches out the heavens"[১৮] So, this prediction based on the Bible is correct, Creationists say; therefore, the expansion of the universe is evidence that God created it.
  • The complexity and delicate balance of the universe. The universal constants that allow the universe to exist (gravitational constant, speed of light, the weak force, etc...) are so fine-tuned that, it is argued, there would need to be a designer to set those constants in place; the values of the constants that allow for life could not have come about by random chance processes.[১৯]
  • Creationists cite problems created by stating that the universe has always existed (the problem of infinity), and that having Big Bang/Big Crunch sequences does nothing to solve the problem.[২০]

ভূতত্ত্ব[সম্পাদনা]

বিবর্তন[সম্পাদনা]

Radiometric dating is the foundation by which many modern scientists date rocks in order to determine the age of the earth (among other things).[২১] Conventionally, the earth has been dated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old.[২১]

Evidence often cited in support of geologic evolution:

  • Radiometric dating is often cited as evidence that the earth is billions of years old.[২২]
  • Uniformitarians argue that, by extrapolating backwards, it is found that geologic structures observed on earth today (the Grand Canyon is a commonly cited example) could not have formed in the short time frame proposed by Creationists.[২৩]

সৃজন[সম্পাদনা]

Catastrophism is a primary tenet to Creationists who hold to the belief that the Flood in Noah's day (recorded in Genesis 6-9) caused most of the geologic layers and formations seen today.[২৪] They believe that the continents broke apart, and drifted to a place very close to where they are today. Most of the layers of rocks were laid down during the Flood of Noah's day, according to their models and theories.[২৪]

Evidences often cited in support of Flood Catastrophism:

জীবনের ভিত্তি[সম্পাদনা]

বিবর্তন[সম্পাদনা]

Life evolved from chemicals on the earth 3.5 billion years ago.[২৫] While there are various theories to how exactly life formed from chemicals, most theories start with the formation of ribonucleic acid and amino acids.[২৬]

Evidence cited in supporting a chemical origin for life:

  • The self-ordering properties that have been observed in amino acids.[২৭] If amino acids can bind naturally, then that would give a mechanism for the chemical origin of life.

সৃজন[সম্পাদনা]

Creationists believe that God created life, and that life cannot come into existence from chemicals.

Evidence cited in supporting a divine origin for life:

  • The existence of information in living organisms (DNA).[২৮] Creationists argue that information, being that it is immaterial in nature, cannot arise from matter; it needs an intelligent agent to create it.

জীববিজ্ঞান[সম্পাদনা]

বিবর্তন[সম্পাদনা]

According to the Theory of Evolution, life evolved from a common ancestor, gradually gaining complexity through mutations, which were refined through natural selection. This has given rise to all life that has ever existed on earth, and possibly on other worlds.[২৯]

Evidence cited in support of biological evolution:

  • Similarities between the DNA of different organisms.[৩০][৩১] DNA similarities are viewed as evolutionary connections between organisms.
  • Transitional species recorded in the fossil record.[২৯][৩২][৩৩] The presence of transitional species in the fossil record are direct evidence for evolution, showing the transformation of species over time.
  • New traits gained through mutations.[৩৪] Lenski's E.coli experiment is often cited regarding this. If mutations can produce novel information, then they are a powerful tool for evolution.
  • Vestigial organs and 'junk' DNA point to an evolutionary history.[৩৫][৩৬] Vestigial organs and, more recently, 'junk' DNA are leftovers of an organism's evolutionary past.

সৃজন[সম্পাদনা]

Creationists hold that God created all flora and fauna. They believe that God created 'kinds', which are roughly equivalent to the scientific classification of family.[৩৭] From there, specification occurred, creating a vast variety of species.[৩৭] It is believed that the Flood of Noah's day created most of the fossil record, and that God sent representatives of the original kinds to Noah to be preserved aboard the Ark.[৩৮] Creationists do not dispute natural selection; rather, they dispute that mutations add information to genetic code.[৩৯]

Creationists believe that:

  • Irreducible complexity prevents evolution from working.[৪০] The idea behind irreducible complexity is that, if something needs all its parts at once to operate (like a mouse trap), then it would have to come into being all at once for it to have a useful function. Creationists often point to the bacterial flagella as evidence of irreducible complexity, and, subsequently, a creator.
  • Mutations do not add new information, though they may cause a new trait to be manifested.[৪১][৪২][৪৩] Creationists argue that there are no mutations that actually add novel information to an organism. A reduction of information caused by a mutation may be beneficial to an organism, but they argue that no new information is actually added.
  • 'Living fossils' present a challenge to the fossil record, as they have avoided being fossilized for many strata.[৪৪] It is argued that, if an organism can stay hidden from the fossil record for millions of years (by traditional dating methods), then that would put into question whether there is actually a progression of organisms in the fossil record.
  • Complex structures in 'simple' organisms. While some organisms have been viewed as 'primitive' and early in evolutionary history, they have been found to have complex, fully developed parts, like the trilobite's eye.[৪৫]

বিতর্ক[সম্পাদনা]

There have been many debates between the Evolutionist and Creationist-camps. While there have been many evaluations of said debates, due to the high level of loyalty member of each side have to their respective camps, such evaluations are often tainted with bias one way or the other.

There is debate among the Evolutionist community on whether or not to debate Creationists, as, in their view, it would give them credibility.[৪৬] [৪৭][৪৮]

In 2014, Bill Nye debated Ken Ham, founder of the Creation Museum and Ark Encounter.[৪৯]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

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