ব্যবহারকারী:Sammay Sarkar/খসড়া/৩

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন

টেমপ্লেট:Use mdy dates

Women pioneers in computing. Clockwise from top left: Ada Lovelace, Grace Hopper, Ida Rhodes, Sophie Wilson, Aminata Sana Congo, Mary Lou Jepsen.

Women in computing have shaped the evolution of information technology. They were among the first programmers in the early 20th century, and contributed substantially to the industry. As technology and practices altered, the role of women as programmers has changed, and the recorded history of the field has downplayed their achievements.

Since the 18th century, women have developed scientific computations, including Nicole-Reine Lepaute's prediction of Halley's Comet, and Maria Mitchell's computation of the motion of Venus. The first algorithm intended to be executed by a computer was designed by Ada Lovelace who was a pioneer in the field. Grace Hopper was the first person to design a compiler for a programming language. Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, and up to World War II, programming was predominantly done by women; significant examples include the Harvard Computers, codebreaking at Bletchley Park and engineering at NASA.

After the 1960s, the "soft work" that had been dominated by women evolved into modern software, and the importance of women decreased. The gender disparity and the lack of women in computing from the late 20th century onward has been examined, but no firm explanations have been established. Nevertheless, many women continued to make significant and important contributions to the IT industry, and attempts were made to readdress the gender disparity in the industry. In the 21st century, women held leadership roles in multiple tech companies, such as Meg Whitman, president and chief executive officer of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Marissa Mayer, president and CEO of Yahoo! and key spokesperson at Google.

History[সম্পাদনা]

1700s[সম্পাদনা]

Nicole-Reine Etable de la Brière Lepaute was one of a team of human computers who worked with Alexis-Claude Clairaut and Joseph-Jérôme Le Français de Lalande to predict the date of the return of Halley's Comet.[১] They began work on the calculations in 1757, working throughout the day and sometimes during mealtimes.[২] Their methods were followed by successive human computers.[৩] They divided large calculations into "independent pieces, assembled the results from each piece into a final product" and then checked for errors.[৩] Lepaute continued to work on computing for the rest of her life, working for the Connaissance de Temps and publishing predictions of solar eclipses.[৪]

1800s[সম্পাদনা]

Astronomer Edward Charles Pickering's Harvard computers

One of the first computers for the American Nautical Almanac was Maria Mitchel.[৫] Her work on the assignment was to compute the motion of the planet Venus.[৬] The Almanac never became a reality, but Mitchell became the first astronomy professor at Vassar.[৭]

Ada Lovelace was the first person to publish an algorithm intended to be executed by the first modern computer, the Analytical Engine created by Charles Babbage. As a result she is often regarded as the first computer programmer.[৮][৯][১০] Lovelace was introduced to Babbage's difference engine when she was 17.[১১] In 1840, she wrote to Babbage and asked if she could become involved with his first machine.[১২] By this time, Babbage had moved on to his idea for the Analytical Engine.[১৩] A paper describing the Analytical Engine, Notions sur la machine analytique, published by L.F. Menabrea, came to the attention of Lovelace, who not only translated it into English, but corrected mistakes made by Menabrea.[১৪] Babbage suggested that she expand the translation of the paper with her own ideas, which, signed only with her initials, AAL, "synthesized the vast scope of Babbage's vision."[১৫] Lovelace imagined the kind of impact of the Analytical Engine might have on society.[১৬] She drew up explanations of how the engine could handle inputs, outputs, processing and data storage.[১৭] She also created several proofs to show how the engine would handle calculations of Bernoulli Numbers on its own.[১৭] The proofs are considered the first examples of a computer program.[১৭][৮] Lovelace downplayed her role in her work during her life, for example, in signing her contributions with AAL so as not be "accused of bragging."[১৮]

After the Civil War in the United States, more women were hired as human computers.[১৯] Many were war widows looking for ways to support themselves.[১৯] Others were hired when the government opened positions to women because of a shortage of men to fill the roles.[১৯]

Annie Jump Cannon working at Harvard

Anna Winlock asked to become a computer for the Harvard Observatory in 1875 and was hired to work for 25 cents an hour.[২০] By 1880, Edward Charles Pickering had hired several women to work for him at Harvard because he knew that women could do the job as well as men and he could ask them to volunteer or work for less pay.[২১][২০] The women, described as "Pickering's harem" and also as the Harvard Computers, performed clerical work that the male employees and scholars considered to be tedious at a fraction of the cost of hiring a man.[২২] The women working for Pickering cataloged around ten thousand stars, discovered the Horsehead Nebula and developed the system to describe stars.[২৩] One of the "computers," Annie Jump Cannon, could classify stars at a rate of three stars per minute.[২৩] The work for Pickering became so popular that women volunteered to work for free even when the computers were being paid.[২৪] Even though they performed an important role, the Harvard Computers were paid less than factory workers.[২৩]

By the 1890s, women computers were college graduates looking for jobs where they could use their training in a useful way.[২৫] Florence Tebb Weldon, was part of this group and provided computations relating to biology and evidence for evolution, working with her husband, W.F. Raphael Weldon.[২৬] Florence Weldon's calculations demonstrated that statistics could be used to support Darwin's theory of evolution.[২৭] Another human computer involved in biology was Alice Lee, who worked with Karl Pearson.[২৮] Pearson hired two sisters to work as part-time computers at his Biometrics Lab, Beatrice and Frances Cave-Brown-Cave.[২৯]

1910s[সম্পাদনা]

During World War I, Karl Pearson and his Biometrics Lab helped produce ballistics calculations for the British Ministry of Munitions.[৩০] Beatrice Cave-Brown-Cave helped calculate trajectories for bomb shells.[৩০] In 1916, Cave-Brown-Cave left Pearson's employ and started working full-time for the Ministry.[৩১] In the United States, women computers were hired to calculate ballistics in 1918, working in a building on the Washington Mall.[৩২] One of the women, Elizabeth Webb Wilson, worked as the chief computer.[৩৩] After the war, women who worked as ballistics computers for the U.S. government had trouble finding jobs in computing and Wilson eventually taught high school math.[৩৪]

1920s[সম্পাদনা]

A group of operators working on an AT&T telephone switchboard

In the early 1920s, Iowa State College, professor George Snedecor worked to improve the school's science and engineering departments, experimenting with new punch-card machines and calculators.[৩৫] Snedecor also worked with human calculators most of them women, including Mary Clem.[৩৬] Clem coined the term "zero check" to help identify errors in calculations.[৩৬] The computing lab, run by Clem, became one of the most powerful computing facilities of the time.[৩৬][৩৭]

Women computers also worked at the American Telephone and Telegraph company.[৩৮] These human computers worked with electrical engineers to help figure out how to boost signals with vacuum tube amplifiers.[৩৮] One of the computers, Clara Froelich, was eventually moved along with the other computers to their own division where they worked with a mathematician, Thornton Fry, to create new computational methods.[৩৮] Froelich studied IBM tabulating equipment and desk calculating machines to see if she could adapt the machine method to calculations.[৩৯]

Edith Clarke was the first woman to earn a degree in electrical engineering and who worked as the first professionally employed electrical engineer in the United States.[৪০] She was hired by General Electric as a full engineer in 1923.[৪০] Clarke also filed a patent in 1921 for a graphical calculator to be used in solving problems in power lines.[৪১] It was granted in 1925.[৪০]

1930s[সম্পাদনা]

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) which became NASA hired a group of five women in 1935 to work as a computer pool.[৪২] The women worked on the data coming from wind tunnel and flight tests.[৪২]

1940s[সম্পাদনা]

Woman working on a Bombe computing device.
Woman working on a Bombe computing device

"Tedious" computing and calculating was seen as "women's work" through the 1940s[৪৩] resulting in the term "kilogirl", invented by a member of the Applied Mathematics Panel in the early 1940s.[৪৪] A kilogirl of energy was "equivalent to roughly a thousand hours of computing labor."[৪৪] While women's contributions to the United States war effort during World War II was championed in the media, their roles and the work they did was minimized.[৪৫] This included minimizing the complexity, skill and knowledge needed to work on computers or work as human computers.[৪৫] During WWII, women did most of the ballistics computing, seen by male engineers as being below their level of expertise.[৪৬] Black women computers worked as hard (or more often, twice as hard) as their white counterparts, but in segregated situations.[৪৭] By 1943, almost all people employed as computers were women.[৪৮]

NACA expanded its pool of women human computers in the 1940s.[৪৯] NACA recognized in 1942 that "the engineers admit themselves that the girl computers do the work more rapidly and accurately than they could."[৪২] In 1943 two groups, segregated by race, worked on the east and west side of Langley Air Force Base.[৪৯] The black women were the West Area Computers.[৪৯] Unlike their white counterparts, the black women were asked by NACA to re-do college courses they had already passed and many never received promotions.[৫০]

Women were also working on ballistic missile calculations. In 1948, women such as Barbara Paulson were working on the WAC Corporal, determining trajectories the missiles would take after launch.[৫১]

Women worked with cryptography and, after some initial resistance, many operated and worked on the Bombe machines.[৫২] Joyce Aylard operated the Bombe machine testing different methods to break the Enigma code.[৫৩] Joan Clarke was a cryptographer who worked with her friend, Alan Turing, on the Enigma machine at Bletchley Park.[৫৪] When she was promoted to a higher salary grade, there were no positions in the civil service for a "senior female cryptanalyst," and she was listed as a linguist instead.[৫৫] While Clarke developed a method of increasing the speed of double-encrypted messages, unlike many of the men, her decryption technique was not named after her.[৫৬] Other cryptographers at Bletchley included Margaret Rock, Mavis Lever (later Batey), Ruth Briggs and Kerry Howard.[৫৪] In 1941, Batey's work enabled the Allies to break the Italian's naval code before the Battle of Cape Matapan.[৫৭] In the United States, several faster Bombe machines were created.[৫৮] Women, like Louise Pearsall, were recruited from the WAVES to work on code breaking and operate the American Bombe machines.[৫৯]

Hedy Lamarr and co-inventor, George Antheil, worked on a frequency hopping method to help the Navy control torpedoes remotely.[৬০] The Navy passed on their idea, but Lamarr and Antheil received a patent for the work on August 11, 1942.[৬০] This technique would later be used again, first in the 1950s at Sylvania Electronic Systems Division and is used in everyday technology such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.[৬০]

Marlyn Wescoff, standing, and Ruth Lichterman reprogram the ENIAC in 1946.
Marlyn Wescoff (standing) and Ruth Lichterman reprogram the ENIAC in 1946.

The programmers of the ENIAC computer in 1944, were six female mathematicians; Marlyn Meltzer, Betty Holberton, Kathleen Antonelli, Ruth Teitelbaum, Jean Bartik, and Frances Spence who were human computers at the Moore School's computation lab.[৬১] Adele Goldstine was their teacher and trainer and they were known as the "ENIAC girls."[৬২] The women who worked on ENIAC were warned that they would not be promoted into professional ratings which were only for men.[৬৩] Designing the hardware was "men's work" and programming the software was "women's work."[৬৪] Sometimes women were given blueprints and wiring diagrams to figure out how the machine worked and how to program it.[৬৫] They learned how the ENIAC worked by repairing it, sometimes crawling through the computer, and by fixing "bugs" in the machinery.[৬৫] Even though the programmers were supposed to be doing the "soft" work of programming, in reality, they did that and fully understood and worked with the hardware of the ENIAC.[৬৬] When the ENIAC was revealed in 1946, Goldstine and the other women prepared the machine and the demonstration programs it ran for the public.[৬৭] None of their work in preparing the demonstrations was mentioned in the official accounts of the public events.[৬৮] After the demonstration, the university hosted an expensive celebratory dinner to which none of the ENIAC six were invited.[৬৯]

In Canada, Beatrice Worsley started working at the National Research Council of Canada in 1947 where she was an aerodynamics research officer.[৭০] A year later, she started working in the new Computational Centre at the University of Toronto.[৭০] She built a differential analyzer in 1948 and also worked with IBM machines in order to do calculations for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.[৭০] She went to study the EDSAC at the University of Cambridge in 1949.[৭০] She wrote the program that was run the first time EDSAC performed its first calculations on May 6, 1949.[৭০][৭১]

Grace Hopper was the first person to create a compiler for a programming language and one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, an electro-mechanical computer based on Analytical Engine. Hopper's work with computers started in 1943, when she started working at the Bureau of Ordnance's Computation Project at Harvard where she programmed the Harvard Mark I.[৪৮] Hopper not only programmed the computer, but created a 500 page comprehensive manual for it.[৭২] Even though Hopper created the manual which was widely cited and published, she was not specifically credited in the manual.[৭২] Hopper is often credited with the coining of the term "bug" and "debugging" when a moth caused the Mark II to malfunction.[৭৩] While a moth was found and the process of removing it called "debugging," the terms were already part of the language of programmers.[৭৩][৭৪][৭৫]

1950s[সম্পাদনা]

Annie Easley at NASA in 1955

Grace Hopper continued to contribute to computer science through the 1950s. She brought the idea of using compilers from her time at Harvard to UNIVAC which she joined in 1949.[৭৬][৭৩] Other women who were hired to program UNIVAC included Adele Mildred Koss, Frances E. Holberton, Jean Bartik, Frances Morello and Lillian Jay.[৬৩] To program the UNIVAC, Hopper and her team used the FLOW-MATIC programming language, which she developed.[৭৩] Holberton wrote a code, C-10, that allowed for keyboard inputs into a general-purpose computer.[৭৭] Holberton also developed the Sort-Merge Generator in 1951 which was used on the UNIVAC I.[৬৩] The Sort-Merge Generator marked the first time a computer "used a program to write a program."[৭৮] Holberton suggested that computer housing should be beige or oatmeal in color which became a long-lasting trend.[৭৮] Koss worked with Hopper on various algorithms and a program that was a precursor to a report generator.[৬৩]

Klara Dan von Neumann was one of the main programmers of the MANIAC, a more advanced version of ENIAC.[৭৯] Her work helped the field of meteorology and weather prediction.[৭৯]

The NACA, and subsequently NASA, recruited women computers following World War II.[৪২] By the 1950s, a team was performing mathematical calculations at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, including Annie Easley, Katherine Johnson and Kathryn Peddrew.[৮০] At the National Bureau of Standards, Margaret R. Fox was hired to work as part of the technical staff of the Electronic Computer Laboratory in 1951.[৪১] In 1956, Gladys West was hired by the U.S. Naval Weapons Laboratory as a human computer.[৮১] West was involved in calculations that let to the development of GPS.[৮১]

At Convair Aircraft Corporation, Joyce Currie Little was one of the original programmers for analyzing data received from the wind tunnels.[৮২] She used punch cards on an IBM 650 which was located in a different building from the wind tunnel.[৮২] To save time in the physical delivery of the punch cards, she and her colleague, Maggie DeCaro, put on roller skates to get to and from the building faster.[৮২]

In Israel, Thelma Estrin worked on the design and development of WEIZAC, one of the world's first large-scale programmable electronic computers.[৮৩] In the Soviet Union the IT industry was dominated by women; a team of them designed the first digital computer in 1951.[৮৪] In the UK, Kathleen Booth worked with her husband, Andrew Booth on several computers at Birkbeck College.[৮৫] Kathleen Booth was the programmer and Andrew built the machines.[৮৫] Kathleen developed Assembly Language at this time.[৮৬] Kateryna Yushchenko created the Address programming language for the MESM in 1955.[৮৭]

1960s[সম্পাদনা]

PFC Patricia Barbeau operates a tape-drive on the IBM 729 at Camp Smith.
PFC Patricia Barbeau operates a tape-drive on the IBM 729 at Camp Smith.

Adele Mildred Koss, who had worked at UNIVAC with Hopper, started work at Control Data Corporation (CDC) in 1965.[৬৩] There she developed algorithms for graphics, including graphic storage and retrieval.[৬৩]

Mary K. Hawes of Burroughs Corporation set up a meeting in 1959 to discuss the creation a computer language that would be shared between businesses.[৮৮] Six people, including Hopper, attended to discuss the philosophy of creating a common business language (CBL).[৮৮] Hopper became involved in developing COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) where she innovated new symbolic ways to write computer code.[৭২] Hopper developed programming language that was easier to read and "self-documenting."[৮৯] After COBOL was submitted to the CODASYL Executive Committee, Betty Holberton did further editing on the language before it was submitted to the Government Printing Office in 1960.[৮৮] IBM were slow to adopt COBOL, which hindered its progress but it was accepted as a standard in 1962, after Hopper had demonstrated the compiler working both on UNIVAC and RCA computers.[৯০] The development of COBOL led to the generation of compilers and generators, most of which were created or refined by women such as Koss, Nora Moser, Deborah Davidson, Sue Knapp, Gertrude Tierney and Jean E. Sammet.[৯১]

Sammet, who worked at IBM starting in 1961 was responsible for developing the programming language, FORMAC.[৮৮] She published a book, Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals (1969), which was considered the "standard work on programming languages," according to Denise Gürer [৮৮] It was "one of the most used books in the field," according to The Times in 1972.[৯২]

Margaret Hamilton in 1969, standing next to listings of the software she and her MIT team produced for the Apollo project[৯৩]

Between 1961 and 1963, Margaret Hamilton began to study software reliability while she was working at the US SAGE air defense system.[৯৪] In 1965, she was responsible for programming the software for the onboard flight software on the Apollo mission computers.[৯৫] After Hamilton had completed the program, the code was sent to Raytheon where "expert seamstresses" called the "Little Old Ladies" actually hardwired the code by threading copper wire through magnetic rings.[৯৫] Each system could store more than 12,000 words that were represented by the copper wires.[৯৫]

In 1964, the British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced a "White-Hot" revolution in technology, that would give greater prominence to IT work. As women still held most computing and programming positions at this time, it was hoped that it would give them more positive career prospects.[৯৬] In 1965, Sister Mary Kenneth Keller became the first American woman to earn a doctorate in computer science.[৯৭] Keller helped develop BASIC while working as a graduate student at Dartmouth, where the university "broke the 'men only' rule" so she could use its computer science center.[৯৮]

Christine Darden began working for NASA's computing pool in 1967 having graduated from the Hampton Institute.[৯৯] Women were involved in the development of Whirlwind, including Judy Clapp.[৬৩] She created the prototype for an air defense system for Whirlwind which used radar input to track planes in the air and could direct aircraft courses.[৬৩]

In 1969, Elizabeth "Jake" Feinler, who was working for Stanford, made the first Resource Handbook for ARPANET.[১০০] This led to the creation of the ARPANET directory, which was built by Feinler with a staff of mostly women.[১০১] Without the directory, "it was nearly impossible to navigate the ARPANET."[১০২]

By the end of the decade, the general demographics of programmers had shifted away from being predominantly women, as they had before the 1940s.[১০৩] Though women accounted for around 30 to 50 percent of computer programmers during the 1960s, few were promoted to leadership roles and women were paid significantly less than their male counterparts.[১০৪] Cosmopolitan ran an article in the April 1967 issue about women in programming called "The Computer Girls."[১০৫] Even while magazines such as Cosmopolitan saw a bright future for women in computers and computer programming in the 1960s, the reality was that women were still being marginalized.[১০৬]

Katherine Johnson working at NASA in 1966

1970s[সম্পাদনা]

Using an NCR 796-201 cathode-ray terminal, circa 1972
Using an NCR 796-201 cathode-ray terminal, circa 1972

In the early 1970s, Pam Hardt-English led a group to create a computer network they named Resource One and which was part of a group called Project One.[১০৭] Her idea to connect Bay Area bookstores, libraries and Project One was an early prototype of the Internet.[১০৬] To work on the project, Hardt-English obtained an expensive SDS-940 computer as a donation from TransAmerica Leasing Corporation in April 1972.[১০৮] They created an electronic library and housed it in a record store called Leopold's in Berkeley.[১০৯] This became the Community Memory database and was maintained by hacker, Jude Milhon.[১১০] After 1975, the SDS-940 computer was repurposed by Sherry Reson, Mya Shone, Chris Macie and Mary Janowitz to create a social services database and a Social Services Referral Directory.[১১১] Hard copies of the directory, printed out as a subscription service, were kept at city buildings and libraries.[১১২] The database was maintained and in use until 2009.[১১৩]

In the early 1970s, Elizabeth "Jake" Feinler, who worked on the Resource Directory for ARPANET, and her team created the first WHOIS directory.[১১৪] Feinler set up a server at the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford which would work as a directory that could retrieve relevant information about a person or entity.[১১৪] She and her team worked on the creation of domains, with Feinler suggesting that domains be divided by categories based on where the computers were kept.[১১৫] For example, military computers would have the domain of .mil, computers at educational institutions would have .edu.[১১৬] Feinler worked for NIC until 1989.[১১৭]

Jean E. Sammet served as the first woman president of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), holding the position between 1974 and 1976.[৮৮]

Adele Goldberg was one of seven programmers that developed Smalltalk in the 1970s, and wrote the majority of the language's documentation. It was one of the first object-oriented programming languages the base of the current graphic user interface,[১১৮] that has its roots in the 1968 The Mother of All Demos by Douglas Engelbart. Smalltalk was used by Apple to launch Apple Lisa in 1983, the first personal computer with a GUI, and a year later its Macintosh. Windows 1.0, based on the same principles, was launched a few months later in 1985.[১১৯][১২০]

In the late 1970s, women such as Paulson and Sue Finley wrote programs for the Voyager mission.[১২১] Voyager continues to carry their codes inside its own memory banks as it leaves the solar system.[১২২] In 1979, Ruzena Bajcsy founded the General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Perception (GRASP) Lab at the University of Pennsylvania.[১২৩]

In the mid-70s, Joan Margaret Winters began working at IBM as part of a "human factors project," called SHARE.[৪১] In 1978, Winters was the deputy manager of the project and went on to lead the project between 1983 and 1987.[৪১] The SHARE group worked on researching how software should be designed to consider human factors.[৪১]

Erna Schneider Hoover developed a computerized switching system for telephone calls that would replace switchboards.[৪১] Her software patent for the system, issued in 1971, was one of the first software patents ever issued.[৪১]

1980s[সম্পাদনা]

Shelley Lake working on computer graphics at Digital Productions, 1983.
Shelley Lake working on computer graphics at Digital Productions, 1983

Gwen Bell developed the Computer Museum in 1980.[১২৪] The museum, which collected computer artifacts became a non-profit organization in 1982 and in 1984, Bell moved it to downtown Boston.[১২৪] Adele Goldberg served as president of ACM between 1984 and 1986.[১২৫] In 1986, Lixia Zhang was the only woman and graduate student to participate in the early Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meetings.[১২৬] Zhang was involved in early Internet development.[১২৬]

Sometimes known as the "Betsy Ross of the personal computer," according to the New York Times, Susan Kare worked with Steve Jobs to design the original icons for the Macintosh.[৬০][১২৭] Kare designed the moving watch, paintbrush and trash can elements that made using a Mac user-friendly.[৬০][১২৭] Kare worked for Apple until the mid-1980s, going on to work on icons for Windows 3.0.[১২৭] Other types of computer graphics were being developed by Nadia Magnenat Thalmann in Canada. Thalmann started working on computer animation to develop "realistic virtual actors" first at the University of Montréal in 1980 and later in 1988 at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.[১২৮]

In the field of human–computer interaction (HCI), French computer scientist, Joëlle Coutaz developed the presentation-abstraction-control (PAC) model in 1987.[১২৯][১৩০] She founded the User Interface group at the Laboratorire de Génie Informatique of IMAG where they worked on different problems relating to user interface and other software tools.[১৩১]

As Ethernet became the standard for networking computers locally, Radia Perlman, who worked at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), was asked to "fix" limitations that Ethernet imposed on large network traffic.[১৩২] In 1985, Perlman came up with a way to route information packets from one computer to another in an "infinitely scalable" way that allowed large networks like the Internet to function.[১৩২] Her solution took less than a few days to design and write up.[১৩২] The name of the algorithm she created is the Spanning Tree Protocol.[১৩৩] In 1988, Stacy Horn, who had been introduced to bulletin board systems (BBS) through The WELL, decided to create her own online community in New York, which she called the East Coast Hang Out (ECHO).[১৩৪] Horn invested her own money and pitched the idea for ECHO to others after bankers refused to hear her business plan.[১৩৫] Horn built her BBS using UNIX, which she and her friends taught to one another.[১৩৬] Eventually ECHO moved an office in Tribeca in the early 1990s and started getting press attention.[১৩৭] ECHO's users could post about topics that interested them, and chat with one another, and were provided email accounts.[১৩৮] Around half of ECHO's users were women.[১৩৯] ECHO was still online as of 2018.[১৪০]

Europe was somewhat behind other countries in developing an Internet infrastructure.[১৪১] A project was developed in the mid-1980s to create an academic network in Europe using the Open System Interconnection (OSI) standards.[১৪১] Borka Jerman Blažič, a Yugoslavian computer scientist was invited to work on the project.[১৪১] She was involved in establishing a Yugoslav Research and Academic Network (YUNAC) in 1989 and registered the domain of .yu for the country.[১৪১]

Computer and video games became popular in the 1980s, but many were primarily action-oriented and not designed from a woman's point of view. Stereotypical characters such as the damsel in distress featured prominently and consequently were not inviting towards women.[১৪২] Dona Bailey designed Centipede, where the player shoots insects, as a reaction to such games, later saying "It didn't seem bad to shoot a bug".[১৪৩] Carol Shaw, considered to be the first modern female games designer, released a 3D version of tic-tac-toe for the Atari 2600 in 1980.[১৪২] Roberta Williams and her husband Ken, founded Sierra Online and pioneered the graphic adventure game format in Mystery House and the King's Quest series. The games had a friendly graphical user interface and introduced humor and puzzles. Cited as an important game designer, her influenced spread from Sierra to other companies such as LucasArts and beyond.[১৪৪][১৪৫] Brenda Laurel worked on porting games from arcade versions to the Atari 400 and Atari 800 computers in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[১৪৬] She then went to work for Activision, writing the manual for Maniac Mansion.[১৪৬]

1984 was the year of Women Into Science and Engineering (WISE). A 1984 report by Ebury Publishing reported that in a typical family, only 5% of mothers and 19% of daughters were using a computer at home, compared to 25% of fathers and 51% of sons. To counteract this, the company launched a series of software titles designed towards women and publicised in Good Housekeeping.[১৪৭] Anita Borg, who had been noticing that women were under-represented in computer science, founded an email support group, Systers, in 1987.[১৪৮]

1990s[সম্পাদনা]

Jaime Levy helped popularise the e-Zine in the 1990s.

By the 1990s, computing was dominated by men. The proportion of female computer science graduates peaked in 1984 around 37 per cent, and then steadily declined. Although the end of the 20th century saw an increase in women scientists and engineers, this did not hold true for computing, which stagnated.[১৪৯] Despite this, they were very involved in working on hypertext and hypermedia projects in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[১৫০] A team of women at Brown University, including Nicole Yankelovich and Karen Catlin, developed Intermedia and invented the anchor link.[১৫১] Apple partially funded their project and incorporated their concepts into Apple operating systems.[১৫২] Sun Microsystems Sun Link Service was developed by Amy Pearl.[১৫২] Janet Walker developed the first system to use bookmarks when she created the Symbolics Document Examiner.[১৫২] In 1989, Wendy Hall created a hypertext project called Microcosm, which was based on digitized multimedia material found in the Mountbatten archive.[১৫৩] Cathy Marshall worked on the NoteCards system at Xerox PARC.[১৫৪] NoteCards went on to influence Apple's HyperCard.[১৫৫] As the Internet became the World Wide Web, developers like Hall adapted their programs to include Web viewers.[১৫৬] Her Microcosm was especially adaptable to new technologies, including animation and 3-D models.[১৫৭] In 1994, Hall helped organize the first conference for the Web.[১৫৮]

Sarah Allen, the co-founder of After Effects, co-founded a commercial software company called CoSA in 1990.[১৫৯] In 1995, she started working on the Shockwave team for Macromedia where she was the lead developer of the Shockwave Mulituser Server, the Flash Media Server and Flash video.[১৫৯]

Following the increased popularity of the Internet in the 1990s, online spaces were set up to cater for women, including the online community Women's WIRE[১৬০] and the technical and support forum LinuxChix.[১৬১] Women's WIRE, launched by Nancy Rhine and Ellen Pack in October 1993, was the first Internet company to specifically target this demographic.[১৬০][১৬২] A conference for women in computer-related jobs, the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, was first launched in 1994 by Anita Borg.[১৪৮]

Game designer Brenda Laurel started working at Interval Research in 1992, and began to think about the differences in the way girls and boys experienced playing video games.[১৬৩] After interviewing around 1,000 children and 500 adults, she determined that games weren't designed with girls' interests in mind.[১৬৪] The girls she spoke with wanted more games with open worlds and characters they could interact with.[১৬৫] Her research led to Interval Research giving Laurel's research team their own company in 1996, Purple Moon.[১৬৫] Also in 1996, Mattel's game, Barbie Fashion Designer, became the first best-selling game for girls.[১৬৬] Purple Moon's first two games based on a character called Rockett, made it to the 100 best-selling games in the years they were released.[১৬৭] In 1999, Mattel bought out Purple Moon.[১৬৮]

Jaime Levy created the one of the first e-Zines in the early 1990s, starting with CyberRag, which included articles, games and animations loaded onto diskettes that anyone with a Mac could access.[১৬৯] Later, she renamed the zine to Electronic Hollywood.[১৬৯] Billy Idol commissioned Levy to create a disk for his album, Cyberpunk.[১৬৯] She was hired to be the creative director of the online magazine, Word, in 1995.[১৬৯]

Cyberfeminists, VNS Matrix, made up of Josephine Starrs, Juliane Pierce, Francesca da Rimini and Virginia Barratt, created art in the early 1990s linking computer technology and women's bodies.[১৭০] In 1997, there was a gathering of cyberfeminists in Kassel, called the First Cyberfeminist International.[১৭১]

In China, Hu Qiheng, was the leader of the team who installed the first TCP/IP connection for China, connecting to the Internet on April 20, 1994.[১৭২] In 1995, Rosemary Candlin went to write software for CERN in Geneva.[১৭৩] In the early 1990s, Nancy Hafkin was an important figure in working with the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) in enabling email connections in 10 African countries.[১৭৪] Starting in 1999, Anne-Marie Eklund Löwinder began to work with Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) in Sweden.[১৭৫] She later made sure that the domain, .se, was the world's first top level domain name to be signed with DNSSEC.[১৭৫]

2000s[সম্পাদনা]

Marissa Mayer
Former vice-president of Google Search Products and User Experience, former president and CEO of Yahoo!, Marissa Mayer

In the 21st century, several attempts have been made to reduce the gender disparity in IT and get more women involved in computing again. A 2001 survey found that while both sexes use computers and the internet in equal measure, women were still five times less likely to choose it as a career or study the subject beyond standard secondary education.[১৭৬] Journalist Emily Chang said a key problem has been personality tests in job interviews and the belief that good programmers are introverts, which tends to self-select the stereotype of an antisocial white male nerd.[১৭৭]

In 2004, the National Center for Women & Information Technology was established by Lucy Sanders to address the gender gap.[১৭৮] Carnegie Mellon University has made a concerted attempt to increase gender diversity in the computer science field, by selecting students based on a wide criteria including leadership ability, a sense of "giving back to the community" and high attainment in maths and science, instead of traditional computer programming expertise. As well as increase the intake of women into CMU, the programme resulted in better quality students overall, as they found the increased diversity made for a stronger team.[১৭৯]

2010s[সম্পাদনা]

Despite the pioneering work of some designers, video games are still considered biased towards men. A 2013 survey by the International Game Developers Association revealed only 22% of game designers are women, although this is substantially higher than figures in previous decades.[১৪২] Working to bring inclusion to the world of open source project development, Coraline Ada Ehmke drafts the Contributor Covenant in 2014.[১৮০] By 2018, over 40,000 software projects have started using the Contributor Covenant, including TensorFlow, Vue and Linux.[১৮০] In 2014, Danielle George, professor at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester spoke at the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on the subject of "how to hack your home", describing simple experiments involving computer hardware and demonstrating a giant game of Tetris by remote controlling lights in an office building.[১৮১][১৮২]

In 2017, Michelle Simmons founded the first quantum computing company in Australia.[১৮৩] The team, which has made "great strides" in 2018, plans to develop a 10-qubit prototype silicon quantum integrated circuit by 2022.[১৮৩] Also in 2017, Doina Precup became the head of DeepMind Montreal, working on artificial intelligence.[১৮৪]

Gender gap in computing[সম্পাদনা]

One of the biggest problems facing women in computing in the modern era is that they often find themselves working in an environment that is largely unpleasant, so they don't stay on in the careers in programming and technology.[১৮৫] In 2013, a National Public Radio report said 20% of computer programmers in the US are female.[১৮৬][১৮৭] There is no general consensus for any key reason there are less women in computing. In 2017, James Damore was fired from Google after claiming there was a biological reason for a lack of female computer scientists.[১৮৮] The following year, Wikipedia was criticised for not having an article about scientist Donna Strickland until shortly after she won the Nobel Prize for Physics, which was attributed to a severe gender disparity of the site's editors.[১৮৯]

In 1991, Massachusetts Institute of Technology undergraduate Ellen Spertus wrote an essay "Why Are There So Few Women in Computer Science?", which complained about inherent sexism in IT, which was responsible for a lack of women in computing.[১৯০] She subsequently taught computer science at Mills College, Oakland in order to increase interest in IT for women.[১৯১] A key problem is a lack of female role models in the IT industry, alongside computer programmers in fiction and the media generally being male.[১৯২] The University of Southampton's Wendy Hall has said the attractiveness of computers to women decreased significantly in the 1980s when they "were sold as toys for boys", and believes the cultural stigma has remained ever since, and may even be getting worse.[১৮৮] Kathleen Lehman, project manager of the BRAID Initiative at UCLA has said a problem is that typically women aim for perfection and feel disillusioned when code does not compile, whereas men may simply treat it as a learning experience.[১৯৩] A report in the Daily Telegraph suggested that women generally prefer people-facing jobs, which many computing and IT positions do not have, while men prefer jobs geared towards objects and tasks.[১৯৪][১৯৫]

The gender disparity in IT is not global. The ratio of female to male computer scientists is significantly higher in India compared to the West.[১৮৮] In Europe, Bulgaria and Romania have the highest rates of women going into computer programming.[১৯৬] In government universities in Saudi Arabia in 2014, Arab women made up 59% of students enrolled in computer science.[১৯৭] However, the ratio of African American female computer scientists in the US is significantly lower than the global average.[১৯৩] It has been suggested there is a greater gap in countries where people of both sexes are treated more equally, contradicting any theories that society in general is to blame for any disparity.[১৯৮]

Turing Award recipients[সম্পাদনা]

Shafi Goldwasser
Shafi Goldwasser was the 2012 Turing award recipient for her collaborative work in cryptography.

The Association for Computing Machinery Turing Award, sometimes referred to as the "Nobel Prize" of computing, was named in honor of Alan Turing. It award has been won by three women between 1966 and 2015.[১৯৯]

Karen Spärk Jones Award recipients[সম্পাদনা]

The British Computer Society Information Retrieval Specialist Group (BCS IRSG) in conjunction with the British Computer Society created an award in 2008 to commemorate the achievements of Karen Spärck Jones, a Professor Emerita of Computers and Information at the University of Cambridge and one of the most remarkable women in computer science. The KSJ award has been won by four women between 2009 and 2017:[২০০]

Organizations[সম্পাদনা]

Several important groups have been established to encourage women in the IT industry. The Association for Women in Computing was one of the first and is dedicated to promoting the advancement of women in computing professions.[২০১] The CRA-W: Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research established in 1991 focused on increasing the number of women in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) research and education at all levels.[২০২] AnitaB.org runs the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing yearly conference. The National Center for Women & Information Technology is a nonprofit that aims to increase the number of women in technology and computing.[২০৩] The Women in Technology International (WITI) is a global organization dedicated to the advancement of women in business and technology.[২০৪]

Some major societies and groups have offshoots dedicated to women. The Association for Computing Machinery's Council on Women in Computing (ACM-W) has over 36,000 members.[২০৫] BCSWomen is a women-only specialist group of the British Computer Society, founded in 2001.[২০৬] In Ireland, the charity Teen Turn run after school training and work placements for girls,[২০৭] and Women in Technology and Science (WITS) advocate for the inclusion and promotion of women within STEM industries.[২০৮]

The Women's Technology Empowerment Centre (W.TEC) is a non-profit organisation focused on providing technology education and mentoring to Nigerian women and girls.[২০৯] Black Girls Code is a non-profit focused on providing technology education to young African-American women.[২১০]

Other organisations dedicated to women in IT include Girl Develop It, a nonprofit organization that provides affordable programs for adult women interested in learning web and software development in a judgment-free environment,[২১১] Girl Geek Dinners, an International group for women of all ages, Girls Who Code: a national non-profit organization dedicated to closing the gender gap in technology,[২১২] LinuxChix, a women-oriented community in the open source movement[২১৩] and Systers, a moderated listserv dedicated to mentoring women in the IT industry.[২১৪]

See also[সম্পাদনা]

References[সম্পাদনা]

Citations

  1. Grier 2013, পৃ. 16।
  2. Grier 2013, পৃ. 20-21।
  3. Grier 2013, পৃ. 25।
  4. Grier 2013, পৃ. 24।
  5. Grier 2013, পৃ. 61।
  6. Grier 2013, পৃ. 62।
  7. Grier 2013, পৃ. 71।
  8. Fuegi, J.; Francis, J. (২০০৩)। "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'"। Annals of the History of Computing25 (4): 16–26। doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887 
  9. Phillips, Ana Lena (নভেম্বর–ডিসেম্বর ২০১১)। "Crowdsourcing gender equity: Ada Lovelace Day, and its companion website, aims to raise the profile of women in science and technology"। American Scientist99 (6): 463। doi:10.1511/2011.93.463 
  10. "Ada Lovelace honoured by Google doodle"The Guardian। ডিসেম্বর ১০, ২০১২। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ডিসেম্বর ১০, ২০১২ 
  11. Evans 2018, পৃ. 16।
  12. Evans 2018, পৃ. 17।
  13. Evans 2018, পৃ. 18।
  14. Evans 2018, পৃ. 19।
  15. Evans 2018, পৃ. 19-20।
  16. Evans 2018, পৃ. 20।
  17. Evans 2018, পৃ. 21।
  18. Smith 2013, পৃ. 5।
  19. Grier 2013, পৃ. 81।
  20. Grier 2013, পৃ. 82।
  21. Sobel 2016, পৃ. 13।
  22. "How Female Computers Mapped the Universe and Brought America to the Moon"Atlas Obscura (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। মার্চ ৪, ২০১৬। সংগ্রহের তারিখ সেপ্টেম্বর ২৯, ২০১৭ 
  23. Evans 2018, পৃ. 23।
  24. Sobel 2016, পৃ. 105।
  25. Grier 2013, পৃ. 103।
  26. Grier 2013, পৃ. 106।
  27. Grier 2013, পৃ. 107।
  28. Grier 2013, পৃ. 110।
  29. Grier 2013, পৃ. 112।
  30. Grier 2013, পৃ. 130।
  31. Grier 2013, পৃ. 131।
  32. Grier 2013, পৃ. 138।
  33. Grier 2013, পৃ. 139।
  34. Grier 2013, পৃ. 152।
  35. Grier 2013, পৃ. 165-166।
  36. Grier 2013, পৃ. 167।
  37. Grier 2013, পৃ. 169।
  38. Grier 2013, পৃ. 170।
  39. Grier 2013, পৃ. 170-171।
  40. Kellner, Tomas (ফেব্রুয়ারি ১০, ২০১৭)। "Mother Of Invention: This Barrier-Busting Electrical Engineer Joined Edison, Tesla in National Inventors Hall of Fame – GE Reports"GE Reports (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। আগস্ট ২৫, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২২, ২০১৮ 
  41. "Pioneering Women in Computer Technology"The Ada Project। মার্চ ২৬, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২২, ২০১৮ 
  42. Atkinson, Joe (আগস্ট ২৪, ২০১৫)। "From Computers to Leaders: Women at NASA Langley"NASA (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  43. Mundy 2017, পৃ. 21।
  44. Evans 2018, পৃ. 24।
  45. Light 1999, পৃ. 455-456।
  46. Light 1999, পৃ. 460।
  47. Shetterly 2016, পৃ. 47-48।
  48. Smith 2013, পৃ. 6।
  49. Shetterly 2016, পৃ. 39।
  50. Blitz, Matt (ফেব্রুয়ারি ৩, ২০১৭)। "The True Story of 'Hidden Figures' and the Women Who Crunched the Numbers for NASA"Popular Mechanics (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৮, ২০১৮ 
  51. Holt 2016, পৃ. 58-59।
  52. Fessenden, Marissa। "Women Were Key to WWII Code-Breaking at Bletchley Park"Smithsonian (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  53. Bearne, Suzanne (জুলাই ২৪, ২০১৮)। "Meet the female codebreakers of Bletchley Park"the Guardian (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  54. Miller, Joe (নভেম্বর ১০, ২০১৪)। "The woman who cracked Enigma cyphers"BBC News (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  55. Pretz, Kathy (ফেব্রুয়ারি ৫, ২০১৫)। "Women Code Breakers: Forgotten by History"The Institute। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  56. Condie, Bill (মে ১৪, ২০১৫)। "Joan Clarke, one of the forgotten women of Bletchley"Cosmos (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  57. Porzucki, Nina (ডিসেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৪)। "Alan Turing may have cracked Nazi codes, but thousands of women helped"Public Radio International (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  58. Mundy 2017, পৃ. 270-271।
  59. Mundy 2017, পৃ. 271-272।
  60. Riberio, Ricky (মে ১১, ২০১২)। "Mothers of Technology: 10 Women Who Invented and Innovated in Tech"BizTech (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৬, ২০১৮ 
  61. Evans 2018, পৃ. 39।
  62. Light 1999, পৃ. 459।
  63. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 177।
  64. Light 1999, পৃ. 469।
  65. Light 1999, পৃ. 470।
  66. Light 1999, পৃ. 471।
  67. Light 1999, পৃ. 472।
  68. Light 1999, পৃ. 473।
  69. Evans 2018, পৃ. 51।
  70. Raymond, Katrine (অক্টোবর ২৫, ২০১৭)। "Beatrice Worsley"The Canadian Encyclopedia (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। জানুয়ারি ১৩, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  71. "EDSAC performed its first calculations"Computing History। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  72. Smith 2013, পৃ. 7।
  73. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 176।
  74. "Moth in the machine: Debugging the origins of 'bug'"Computerworld (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সেপ্টেম্বর ৩, ২০১১। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  75. Pearson, Gwen (ডিসেম্বর ৯, ২০১৩)। "Google Honors Grace Hopper...and a "bug""WIRED (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  76. Ceruzzi 1998, পৃ. 84-85।
  77. "Frances Holberton, Pioneer in Computer Languages, Dies"The Courier-Journal (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। ডিসেম্বর ১২, ২০০১। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ – Newspapers.com-এর মাধ্যমে। 
  78. Evans 2018, পৃ. 59।
  79. Shepherd, Marshall (জানুয়ারি ২৪, ২০১৭)। "How A Woman You Never Heard Of Helped Enable Modern Weather Prediction"Forbes (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৪, ২০১৮ 
  80. Edwards ও Harris 2016, পৃ. 6,10।
  81. "Hidden Figure | Mathematician who helped develop GPS technology inducted into Air Force hall of fame"WFAA। ডিসেম্বর ১৮, ২০১৮। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ডিসেম্বর ২২, ২০১৮ 
  82. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 182।
  83. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 178।
  84. Abbate 2012, পৃ. 4।
  85. Johnson, Roger (২০০৮)। School of Computer Science & Information Systems: A Short History (PDF)। Birkbeck College, University of London। পৃষ্ঠা 7–8। 
  86. Connolly, Cornelia; Hall, Tony; Lenaghan, Jim (জানুয়ারি ১০, ২০১৮)। "The women who led the way in computer programming"RTE.ie (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৫, ২০১৮ 
  87. Johnson, Phil। "In Pictures: 9 programming languages and the women who created them"ARN। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ডিসেম্বর ৬, ২০১৮ 
  88. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 179।
  89. Ceruzzi 1998, পৃ. 92।
  90. Marx 2004, পৃ. 60।
  91. Evans 2018, পৃ. 73।
  92. "Computer Authority to Speak Here"The Times (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। এপ্রিল ৯, ১৯৭২। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ – Newspapers.com-এর মাধ্যমে। 
  93. Weinstock, Maia (আগস্ট ১৭, ২০১৬)। "Scene at MIT: Margaret Hamilton's Apollo code"MIT News। সংগ্রহের তারিখ আগস্ট ১৭, ২০১৬ 
  94. "Margaret Hamilton"Computer History Museum (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ১৮, ২০১৮ 
  95. Harvey IV, Harry Gould (অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৫)। "Her Code Got Humans on the Moon—And Invented Software Itself"WIRED (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৪, ২০১৮ 
  96. Hicks 2017, পৃ. 14।
  97. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 180।
  98. Gürer 1995, পৃ. 180-181।
  99. Edwards ও Harris 2016, পৃ. 50।
  100. Evans 2018, পৃ. 112।
  101. Evans 2018, পৃ. 113।
  102. Evans 2018, পৃ. 116।
  103. Hicks 2017, পৃ. 1।
  104. Evans 2018, পৃ. 76-77।
  105. Evans 2018, পৃ. 75।
  106. Evans 2018, পৃ. 76।
  107. Evans 2018, পৃ. 100।
  108. Evans 2018, পৃ. 98।
  109. Evans 2018, পৃ. 101।
  110. Evans 2018, পৃ. 102।
  111. Evans 2018, পৃ. 104-105।
  112. Evans 2018, পৃ. 106-107।
  113. Evans 2018, পৃ. 107।
  114. Evans 2018, পৃ. 119।
  115. Evans 2018, পৃ. 120।
  116. Evans 2018, পৃ. 120-121।
  117. Metz, Cade (জুন ১৮, ২০১২)। "Before Google and GoDaddy, There Was Elizabeth Feinler"WIRED (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  118. "Adele Goldberg"University of Maryland, College Park। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  119. "The Mother of All Demos — 150 years ahead of its time"The Register। ডিসেম্বর ১১, ২০০৮। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৯, ২০১৮ 
  120. Farber, Dan (জানুয়ারি ২১, ২০১৪)। "Tracing the Origins of the Macintosh"CNet। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৯, ২০১৮ 
  121. Holt 2016, পৃ. 247।
  122. Holt 2016, পৃ. 283-284।
  123. "Ruzena Bajcsy"The Franklin Institute (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। জানুয়ারি ১৫, ২০১৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ২৪, ২০১৮ 
  124. Lee, J.A.N. (১৯৯৫)। "Computer Pioneers – Gwen Bell"Computer Pioneers। IEEE Computer Society। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৮, ২০১৮ 
  125. "Adele Goldberg, Founding Chairman, ParcPlace Systems, Inc"WITI – Women in Technology Hall of Fame। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৪, ২০১৮ 
  126. "Interview with Lixia Zhang, Professor, Computer Science Department, UCLA, Member of the IAB", IETF Journal, Spring ২০০৬, মার্চ ৪, ২০১৬ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা .
  127. Zuckerman, Laurence (আগস্ট ২৬, ১৯৯৬)। "The Designer Who Made the Mac Smile"The New York Times। ফেব্রুয়ারি ২১, ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৬, ২০১৮ 
  128. "Nadia Magnenat Thalmann"Graphics Interface (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। জুলাই ২৭, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  129. "Coutaz, Joëlle"Encounters with HCI Pioneers – A Personal Photo Journal (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। ডিসেম্বর ৫, ২০১৫। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  130. Coutaz, Joëlle (অক্টোবর ১, ১৯৮৭)। "PAC: AN OBJECT ORIENTED MODEL FOR IMPLEMENTING USER INTERFACES"। ACM SIGCHI Bulletin19 (2): 37–41। doi:10.1145/36111.1045592আইএসএসএন 0736-6906 
  131. Unger, Claus; Bass, Leonard J. (জানুয়ারি ৯, ২০১৬)। Engineering for HCI (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। Springer। পৃষ্ঠা 43। আইএসবিএন 9780387349077 
  132. Evans 2018, পৃ. 126।
  133. Rosen, Rebecca J. (মার্চ ৩, ২০১৪)। "Radia Perlman: Don't Call Me the Mother of the Internet"The Atlantic (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  134. Evans 2018, পৃ. 134।
  135. Evans 2018, পৃ. 135।
  136. Evans 2018, পৃ. 135-136।
  137. Evans 2018, পৃ. 136।
  138. Evans 2018, পৃ. 137।
  139. Evans 2018, পৃ. 139।
  140. Evans 2018, পৃ. 144।
  141. Pirnat, Andrej J. (মে ৩০, ২০১৬)। "To je znanstvenica, ki je v Slovenijo pripeljala internet #intervju"Siol.net (স্লোভেনীয় ভাষায়)। জুলাই ৮, ২০১৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৯, ২০১৮ 
  142. Suellentrop, Chris (অক্টোবর ২০, ২০১৪)। "Saluting the Women Behind the Screen"New York Times। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  143. Ortutay, Barbara (জুন ২৯, ২০১২)। "Iconic Atari turns 40, tries to stay relevant"। Yahoo! News। Associated Press। 
  144. Loguidice, Bill; Barton, Matt (২০১২)। Vintage Games: An Insider Look at the History of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the Most Influential Games of All Time। Taylor & Francis। পৃষ্ঠা 215। আইএসবিএন 978-1-136-13757-0 
  145. Eschner, Kat (ফেব্রুয়ারি ১৬, ২০১৭)। "The Pioneer of Graphic Adventure Games Was a Woman"Smithsonian Magazine। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  146. Evans 2018, পৃ. 226।
  147. "Computer machismo"Sinclair User। নভেম্বর ১৯৮৪। পৃষ্ঠা 12। 
  148. "Anita Borg; Helped Women Break Industry's 'Silicone Ceiling'"The Boston Globe (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। এপ্রিল ১০, ২০০৩। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৯, ২০১৮ – Newspapers.com-এর মাধ্যমে। 
  149. Abbate 2012, পৃ. 145।
  150. Evans 2018, পৃ. 161।
  151. Evans 2018, পৃ. 161-162।
  152. Evans 2018, পৃ. 162।
  153. Evans 2018, পৃ. 159।
  154. Evans 2018, পৃ. 164।
  155. Evans 2018, পৃ. 164-165।
  156. Evans 2018, পৃ. 169।
  157. Evans 2018, পৃ. 171।
  158. Evans 2018, পৃ. 174।
  159. "Sarah Allen"National Center for Women & Information Technology (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  160. "Wired Women of the Internet"The Paducah Sun (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। অক্টোবর ১৬, ১৯৯৬। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১১, ২০১৮ – Newspapers.com-এর মাধ্যমে। 
  161. Lisa Bowman (সেপ্টেম্বর ১৫, ১৯৯৯)। "She-geeks confess love for Linux"ZDNet News। জুন ২৫, ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। 
  162. Evans 2018, পৃ. 206।
  163. Evans 2018, পৃ. 227-228।
  164. Evans 2018, পৃ. 228।
  165. Evans 2018, পৃ. 229।
  166. Evans 2018, পৃ. 230।
  167. Evans 2018, পৃ. 233।
  168. Evans 2018, পৃ. 235।
  169. Evans, Claire L.। "The Untold Story of Jaime Levy, Punk-Rock Cyber-Publishing Pioneer"Intelligencer (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  170. Evans 2018, পৃ. 238।
  171. Evans 2018, পৃ. 240।
  172. Burgess, Jean; Marwick, Alice; Poell, Thomas, সম্পাদকগণ (২০১৭)। The SAGE Handbook of Social Media। SAGE। পৃষ্ঠা 123–24। আইএসবিএন 978-1473995796। সংগ্রহের তারিখ মার্চ ২৫, ২০১৮ 
  173. Abbate, Janet (সেপ্টেম্বর ১৯, ২০০১)। "Oral-History:Rosemary Candlin"Engineering and Technology History Wiki (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২২, ২০১৮ 
  174. "Nancy Hafkin"Internet Hall of Fame। নভেম্বর ২১, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৯, ২০১৮ 
  175. "Anne-Marie Eklund Löwinder"Internet Hall of Fame। সেপ্টেম্বর ১৪, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৯, ২০১৮ 
  176. Frieze ও Quesenberry 2015, পৃ. 15।
  177. Chang, Emily (মার্চ ১৭, ২০১৮)। "Why sexism is rife in Silicon Valley"The Guardian। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  178. Ericson, Cathie (অক্টোবর ১৭, ২০১৪)। "Intrepid Woman: Lucinda (Lucy) Sanders: CEO and Co-founder of the National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT)"The Glass Hammer। Evolved People Media LLC। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ১২, ২০১৪ 
  179. Frieze ও Quesenberry 2015, পৃ. 25-27।
  180. Finley, Klint (সেপ্টেম্বর ২৬, ২০১৮)। "The Woman Bringing Civility to Open Source Projects"WIRED (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  181. "Christmas lectures will reveal how to 'hack your home'"The Guardian। আগস্ট ১৯, ২০১৪। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ৯, ২০১৯ 
  182. "Prof Danielle George MBE"। Great British Speakers। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ৯, ২০১৯ 
  183. "Meet the woman leading race to build world's first quantum computer"The Economic Times। মে ১১, ২০১৮। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  184. "Strengthening our commitment to Canadian research"DeepMind। অক্টোবর ৯, ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  185. Waxman, Olivia B. (আগস্ট ৮, ২০১৭)। "Women in Tech and the History Behind That Controversial Google Diversity Memo"Time (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৮, ২০১৮ 
  186. Laura Sydell (Director) (এপ্রিল ২৯, ২০১৩)। "Blazing The Trail For Female Programmers"All Tech Considered। National Public Radio। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জুন ৭, ২০১৩ 
  187. Margolis ও Fisher 2003, পৃ. 8।
  188. Devlin, Hannah; Hern, Alex (আগস্ট ৮, ২০১৭)। "Why are there so few women in tech? The truth behind the Google memo"The Guardian। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৮, ২০১৭ 
  189. "Donna Strickland's treatment on Wikipedia shows how women have long been excluded from science"The Independent। অক্টোবর ৬, ২০১৮। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৯, ২০১৮ 
  190. Abbate 2012, পৃ. 150।
  191. Hafner, Katie (আগস্ট ২১, ২০০৩)। "3 Women, 3 Paths, 10 Years On"New York Times। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৩, ২০১৮ 
  192. McBride, Sarah (অক্টোবর ৯, ২০১৫)। "Computer science now top major for women at Stanford University"Reuters। সংগ্রহের তারিখ জানুয়ারি ৫, ২০১৬ 
  193. Sax, Linda (জুন ২৬, ২০১৭)। "Cracking the code: Why aren't more women majoring in computer science?"UCLA Newsroom। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৮, ২০১৮ 
  194. Rigby, Jennifer (ফেব্রুয়ারি ১৬, ২০১৫)। "Is there any science behind the lack of women in science?"The Telegraph। The Telegraph। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ২৬, ২০১৬ 
  195. Radford, John; Holdstock, Leonard (১৯৯৫)। "Gender Differences in Higher Education Aims between Computing and Psychology Students"। Research in Science & Technological Education13 (2): 163–176। doi:10.1080/0263514950130206 
  196. Fiscutean, Andrada (জুন ১৩, ২০১৭)। "Women in tech: Why Bulgaria and Romania are leading in software engineering | ZDNet"ZDNet (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ২৩, ২০১৮ 
  197. Islam 2017, পৃ. 13।
  198. Lippa, Richard (২০১০)। "Gender Differences in Personality and Interests: When, Where, and Why?"। Social and Personality Psychology Compass4 (11): 1098–1110। doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00320.x 
  199. "Official ACM Turing award website"amturing.acm.org। ACM। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ফেব্রুয়ারি ১৪, ২০১৫ 
  200. "KSJ Award"irsg.bcs.org। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ৮, ২০১৮ 
  201. "Association for Women in Computing"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ আগস্ট ১০, ২০১৫ 
  202. "The History of CRA-W"। CRA Women। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  203. "About Us" 
  204. Bidshahri, Raya (জুলাই ২৯, ২০১৮)। "How Technology Is Helping Close the Gender Gap and Empower Women"Singularity Hub (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  205. "ACM-W Brochure" (PDF) 
  206. Richards, Justin (এপ্রিল ৪, ২০০৬)। "BCSWomen celebrates five years"Computer Weekly। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ১৫, ২০১৮ .
  207. Darmody, Jenny (জুলাই ১৩, ২০১৭)। "Teen-Turn: How companies are bringing more women into STEM"Silicon Republic (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  208. Sheridan, Cormac (ফেব্রুয়ারি ১৩, ২০১৮)। "The stories that she told: Mary Mulvihill (1959–2015)"Silicon Republic (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ নভেম্বর ১৫, ২০১৮ 
  209. "The Women's Technology Empowerment Centre – W.TEC"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ অক্টোবর ২৬, ২০১৪ 
  210. Robehmed, Natalie (আগস্ট ৩০, ২০১৩)। "Black Girls Code Tackles Tech Inclusion"Forbes। সংগ্রহের তারিখ এপ্রিল ১৬, ২০১৪ 
  211. "About – Girl Develop It"www.girldevelopit.com 
  212. "About Us – Girls Who Code" 
  213. Lisa Bowman (সেপ্টেম্বর ১৫, ১৯৯৯)। "She-geeks confess love for Linux"ZDNet News। জুন ২৫, ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। 
  214. Kadaba, Linda (জুন ২৬, ১৯৯৫)। "'Systers' carve out Internet niche"Austin American-Statesman। সংগ্রহের তারিখ সেপ্টেম্বর ২১, ২০১২ 

Sources

Further reading[সম্পাদনা]

  • Cooper, Joel; Weaver, Kimberlee D. (২০০৩)। Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide। Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8058-4427-6 
  • Galpin, Vashti (২০০২)। "Women in computing around the world"। ACM SIGCSE Bulletin34 (2): 94–100। doi:10.1145/543812.543839 
  • Light, Jennifer S. (১৯৯৯)। "When Computers Were Women"। Technology and Culture40 (3): 455–483। 
  • Martin, Ursula। "Women in Computing in the UK"University of St Andrews। জুন ২৪, ২০০৩ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। 
  • Misa, Thomas J., সম্পাদক (২০১০)। Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing। Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press। আইএসবিএন 978-0-470-59719-4 
  • Moses, L. E. (১৯৯৩)। "Our computer science class rooms: Are they friendly to female students?"। SIGCSE Bulletin25 (3)। পৃষ্ঠা 3–12। 
  • Natarajan, Priyamvada, "Calculating Women" (review of Margot Lee Shetterly, Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race, William Morrow; Dava Sobel, The Glass Universe: How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars, Viking; and Nathalia Holt, Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, from Missiles to the Moon to Mars, Little, Brown), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 9 (May 25, 2017), pp. 38–39.
  • Newitz, Annalee; Anders, Charlie, সম্পাদকগণ (২০০৬)। She's Such a Geek: Women Write About Science, Technology, and Other Nerdy Stuff। Seal Press। আইএসবিএন 978-1580051903 
  • Varma, Roli; Galindo-Sanchez, Vanessa (২০০৬)। "Native American Women in Computing" (PDF)। University of New Mexico। 

External links[সম্পাদনা]