আর্জিনিন ভ্যাসোপ্রেসিন মডেল
|আরএনএ এক্সপ্রেশন প্যাটার্ন|
|Ibrahim Husain Meraj (আলাপ) কর্তৃক ২৮ জুলাই ২০১৬ তারিখেজমা প্রত্যাখ্যাত হয়েছে। You are encouraged to make improvements by clicking on the "Edit" tab at the top of this page. If you require extra help, ask a question at the Articles for creation help desk. There is also a live help chat with experienced editors. উৎস অনুসন্ধান: । Declined by Ibrahim Husain Meraj ৩ বছর আগে. Last edited by AftabBot ২ বছর আগে. Reviewer: Inform author.|
ডায়াফ্রামে কিছু ছিদ্র বা ফাঁকা জায়গা আছে যার মধ্য দিয়ে কিছু কাঠামো অতিক্রম করে।এর মধ্যে তিনটি বড়-অ্যাওর্টিক বা ধমনীক,ইসোফেগিয়াল বা অন্ননালীয় ও ভেনাক্যাভাল বা শিরা এবং কিছু ছোট।
|বর্ণনা||অবস্থানকারী কশেরুকা লেভেল||যা যা অতিক্রম করে|
|caval opening||T8||The caval opening passes through the central tendon of the diaphargm. It contains the inferior vena cava, and some branches of the right phrenic nerve[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন].|
|esophageal hiatus||T10||The esophageal hiatus is situated in the posterior part of the diaphragm, located slightly left of the central tendon through the muscular sling of the right crus of the diaphragm |
It contains the esophagus, and anterior and posterior vagal trunks.
|aortic hiatus||T12||The aortic hiatus is in the posterior part of the diaphragm, between the left and right crus.|
It contains the aorta, the azygos vein, the hemiazygos vein, and the thoracic duct.
|two lesser apertures of right crus||greater and lesser right splanchnic nerves|
|three lesser apertures of left crus||greater and lesser left splanchnic nerves and the hemiazygos vein|
|behind the diaphragm, under the medial lumbocostal arch||sympathetic trunk|
|areolar tissue between the sternal and costal parts (see also foramina of Morgagni)||the superior epigastric branch of the internal mammary artery and some lymphatics from the abdominal wall and convex surface of the liver|
|areolar tissue between the fibers springing from the medial and lateral lumbocostal arches||This interval is less constant; when this interval exists, the upper and back part of the kidney is separated from the pleura by areolar tissue only.|
The caval opening is quadrilateral in form, and is placed at the junction of the right and middle leaflets of the central tendon, so that its margins are tendinous. By being situated in the tendinous part of the diaphragm, it is stretched open every time inspiration occurs. However there has been argument that caval opening actually constricts during inspiration. Since thoracic pressure decreases upon inspiration and draws the caval blood upwards toward the right atrium, increasing the size of the opening allows more blood to return to the heart, maximizing the efficacy of lowered thoracic pressure returning blood to the heart. Note that the Aorta does not pierce the diaphragm but rather moves posteriorly in between the left and right crus.
Science has looked at the causes of homosexuality, and more generically the causes of human sexual orientation, with the general conclusions being related to biological and environmental factors. The biological factors that have been researched are genetic and hormonal, particularly during the fetal developmental period, that influence the resulting brain structure, and other characteristics such as handedness. There are a wide range of environmental factors (sociological, psychological, or early uterine environment), and various biological factors, that may influence sexual orientation; though many researchers believe that it is caused by a complex interplay between nature and nurture, they favor biological models for the cause.
|“||Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. [...] Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood.||”|
|“||Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual—including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.||”|
The Royal College of Psychiatrists stated in 2007:
|“||Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation. It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice.||”|
The American Psychological Association states "there are probably many reasons for a person's sexual orientation and the reasons may be different for different people", and says most people's sexual orientation is determined at an early age. Research into how sexual orientation in males may be determined by genetic or other prenatal factors plays a role in political and social debates about homosexuality, and also raises concerns about genetic profiling and prenatal testing.
Professor Michael King states: "The conclusion reached by scientists who have investigated the origins and stability of sexual orientation is that it is a human characteristic that is formed early in life, and is resistant to change. Scientific evidence on the origins of homosexuality is considered relevant to theological and social debate because it undermines suggestions that sexual orientation is a choice."
The authors of a 2008 study stated "there is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency". They hypothesized that "while genes predisposing to homosexuality reduce homosexuals' reproductive success, they may confer some advantage in heterosexuals who carry them". Their results suggested that "genes predisposing to homosexuality may confer a mating advantage in heterosexuals, which could help explain the evolution and maintenance of homosexuality in the population". A 2009 study also suggested a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual people from the maternal line (but not in those related from the paternal one).
A review paper by Bailey and Zuk looking into studies of same-sex sexual behaviour in animals challenges the view that such behaviour lowers reproductive success, citing several hypotheses about how same-sex sexual behavior might be adaptive; these hypotheses vary greatly among different species. Bailey and Zuk also suggest future research needs to look into evolutionary consequences of same-sex sexual behaviour, rather than only looking into origins of such behaviour.
Lesbian narratives and sexual orientation awareness[সম্পাদনা]
Lesbians often experience their sexuality differently from gay men, and have different understandings about etiology from those derived from studies focused mostly on men. For information specific to female homosexuality, see Lesbian.
In a U.S.-based 1970s mail survey by Shere Hite, lesbians self-reported their reasons for being lesbian. This is the only major piece of research into female sexuality that has looked at how women understand being homosexual since Kinsey in 1953. The research yielded information about women's general understanding of lesbian relationships and their sexual orientation. Women gave various reasons for preferring sexual relations with women to sexual relations with men, including finding women more sensitive to other people's needs.
Since Hite carried out her study she has acknowledged that some women may have chosen the political identity of a lesbian. Julie Bindel, a UK journalist, reaffirmed that "political lesbianism continues to make intrinsic sense because it reinforces the idea that sexuality is a choice, and we are not destined to a particular fate because of our chromosomes." as recently as 2009.
Sexual orientation change efforts[সম্পাদনা]
There are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether sexual orientation change efforts work to change a person's sexual orientation. Those efforts have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations and professional and scientific organizations and other faith-based organizations, on the other. The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation, and therefore not a mental disorder. The American Psychological Association says that "most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation". Some individuals and groups have promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that sexual orientation change efforts, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors. Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds.
No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. These include the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, American Counseling Association, National Association of Social Workers in the USA, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, and the Australian Psychological Society. The American Psychological Association and the Royal College of Psychiatrists expressed concerns that the positions espoused by NARTH are not supported by the science and create an environment in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish.
The American Psychological Association "encourages mental health professionals to avoid misrepresenting the efficacy of sexual orientation change efforts by promoting or promising change in sexual orientation when providing assistance to individuals distressed by their own or others' sexual orientation and concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation".
Fluidity of orientation[সম্পাদনা]
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has stated "some people believe that sexual orientation is innate and fixed; however, sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime". A report from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health states: "For some people, sexual orientation is continuous and fixed throughout their lives. For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time". One study has suggested "considerable fluidity in bisexual, unlabeled, and lesbian women's attractions, behaviors, and identities".
Gender and fluidity[সম্পাদনা]
In a 2004 study, the female subjects (both gay and straight women) became sexually aroused when they viewed heterosexual as well as lesbian erotic films. Among the male subjects, however, the straight men were turned on only by erotic films with women, the gay ones by those with men. The study's senior researcher said that women's sexual desire is less rigidly directed toward a particular sex, as compared with men's, and it's more changeable over time.
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
GRAYS2005নামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
Frankowskiনামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
rcp2007নামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
apahelpনামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- Perrin, E. C. (২০০২)। Sexual Orientation in Child and Adolescent Health Care। New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers। আইএসবিএন 0-306-46761-5।
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
amiciনামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- Mitchum, Robert (১২ আগস্ট ২০০৭), "Study of gay brothers may find clues about sexuality", Chicago Tribune, সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৪ মে ২০০৭[অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
- "How much is known about the origins of homosexuality?"। Church Times। ১৬ নভেম্বর ২০০৭। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৪ আগস্ট ২০১০।[অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
- Zietsch et al. (2008)
- Iemmola, Francesca and Camperio Ciani, Andrea (২০০৯)। "New Evidence of Genetic Factors Influencing Sexual Orientation in Men: Female Fecundity Increase in the Maternal Line"। Archives of Sexual Behavior। Springer Netherlands। 38।
- Bailey, N. W., & Zuk, M. (2009). Same-sex sexual behavior and evolution. Trends In Ecology & Evolution, 24(8), 439–446. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.014 
- "Locke Concedes In Mayor's Race – Politics News Story – KPRC Houston"। ১৬ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৯ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৩ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৯।
- Shere Hite, The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality (N.Y.: Seven Stories Press, 2004 ed. pbk. [1st printing?] © 1976, 1981, 2004), pp. 325–328 & 330 (আইএসবিএন ১-৫৮৩২২-৫৬৯-২).
- Bindel, Julie (৩০ জানুয়ারি ২০০৯)। "My sexual revolution"। The Guardian। London। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৪ মে ২০১০।
- উদ্ধৃতি ত্রুটি: অবৈধ
apa2009নামের সূত্রের জন্য কোন লেখা প্রদান করা হয়নি
- "Answers to Your Questions. For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality" (PDF)। American Psychological Association। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০ ডিসেম্বর ২০১০।
- "Expert affidavit of Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D."। ২৫ আগস্ট ২০১০ তারিখে মূল (PDF) থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৪ আগস্ট ২০১০।
- Royal College of Psychiatrists: Statement from the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Gay and Lesbian Mental Health Special Interest Group[অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
- Australian Psychological Society: Sexual orientation and homosexuality[অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
- "Statement of the American Psychological Association" (PDF)। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৪ আগস্ট ২০১০।
- American Psychiatric Association (মে ২০০০)। "Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues"। Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrics।
- "ARQ2: Question A2 – Sexual Orientation"। Centre for Addiction and Mental Health। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৮ আগস্ট ২০০৭।
- Diamond, Lisa M. (জানুয়ারি ২০০৮)। "Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study." (PDF)। 44 (1)। Developmental Psychology: 5–14। doi:10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.168। PMID 18194000।
- "Bisexual women – new research findings"। Women's Health News। ১৭ জানুয়ারি ২০০৮।
- "Why women are leaving men for other women"। CNN। ২৩ এপ্রিল ২০০৯। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৯ মে ২০০৯।