ব্যবহারকারী:Alphaa Noman/Native Americans in the United States

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন
Native Americans
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মোট জনসংখ্যা
American Indian and Alaska Native (2010 Census Bureau)[১]
One race: 2,932,248 are registered.
In combination with one or more of the other races listed: 2,288,331.
Total: 5,220,579.
উল্লেখযোগ্য জনসংখ্যার অঞ্চলসমূহ
Predominantly in the Western United States; small but significant communities exist in the Eastern United States also
ভাষা
Native American languages (including Navajo, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Dakota, Western Apache, Keres, Cherokee, Zuni, Ojibwe, O'odham[২]), English, Spanish
ধর্ম
Native American Church
Protestant
Roman Catholic
Russian Orthodox
Traditional Ceremonial Ways
(Unique to Specific Tribe or Band)
সংশ্লিষ্ট জনগোষ্ঠী
Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Metis, Mestizo, Latin Americans

In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of numerous distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups, and many of these groups survive intact today as sovereign nations. The terms Native Americans use to refer to themselves vary regionally and generationally, with many older Native Americans self-identifying as "Indians" or "American Indians", while younger Native Americans often identify as "Indigenous". Which terms should be used to refer to Native Americans has at times been controversial. The term "Native American" has been adopted by major newspapers and some academic groups, but has not traditionally included Native Hawaiians or certain Alaskan Natives, such as Aleut, Yup'ik, or Inuit peoples. Indigenous American peoples from Canada are known as First Nations.

Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of exchange and adjustment between Old and New World societies. Most Native American groups had historically lived as hunter-gatherer societies and preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, which has resulted in the first written sources on the conflict being authored by Europeans.[৩]

At the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than the Europeans were familiar with. The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, and social disruption. Even before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with European diseases spread throughout the Americas by the Spanish to which they had yet not acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations, although estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U.S. vary significantly, from 1 million to 18 million.[৪][৫]

After the thirteen colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as U.S. citizens.[৬][৭][৮][৯]

  1. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf 2010 Census Bureau
  2. Siebens, J & T Julian. Native North American Languages Spoken at Home in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2006–2010. United States Census Bureau. December 2011.
  3. Calloway, Colin G. "Native Americans First View Whites from the Shore." American Heritage, Spring 2009. Retrieved 2011-12-29
  4. Bruce E. Johansen (২০০৬)। The Native Peoples of North AmericaRutgers University Pressআইএসবিএন 978-0-8135-3899-0 
  5. "Native American"Encyclopædia Britannica। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০০৯-০৬-২৮ 
  6. Perdue, Theda (২০০৩)। "Chapter 2 "Both White and Red""। Mixed Blood Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South। The University of Georgia Press। পৃষ্ঠা 51। আইএসবিএন 0-8203-2731-X 
  7. Remini, Robert (১৯৯৮) [1977]। ""The Reform Begins""। Andrew Jackson। History Book Club। পৃষ্ঠা 201। আইএসবিএন 0-06-080132-8 
  8. Remini, Robert (১৯৯৮) [1977]। ""Brothers, Listen ... You Must Submit""। Andrew Jackson। History Book Club। পৃষ্ঠা 258। আইএসবিএন 0-06-080132-8 
  9. Eric Miller (১৯৯৪)। "George Washington and Indians, Washington and the Northwest War, Part One"। Eric Miller। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০০৮-০৫-০২