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ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা
ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা
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Electron configuration was first conceived under the [[Bohr model]] of the atom, and it is still common to speak of shells and subshells despite the advances in understanding of the [[Quantum mechanics|quantum-mechanical]] nature of electrons.
 
An electron shell is the set of [[Quantum state|allowed states]] that share the same [[principal quantum number]], ''n'' (the number before the letter in the orbital label), that electrons may occupy. An atom's ''n''th electron shell can accommodate 2''n''<sup>2</sup> electrons, ''e.g.'' the first shell can accommodate 2&nbsp;electrons, the second shell 8&nbsp;electrons, the third shell 18&nbsp;electrons and so on. The factor of two arises because the allowed states are doubled due to [[Spin (physics)|electron spin]]—each [[atomic orbital]] admits up to two otherwise identical electrons with opposite spin, one with a spin +1/2 (usually denoted by an up-arrow) and one with a spin −1/2 (with a down-arrow).
 
A subshell is the set of states defined by a common [[azimuthal quantum number]], ℓ, within a shell. The values ℓ = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the ''s'', ''p'', ''d'', and ''f'' labels, respectively. For example, the 3''d'' subshell has n = 3 and ℓ = 2. The maximum number of electrons that can be placed in a subshell is given by 2(2ℓ+1). This gives two electrons in an s&nbsp;subshell, six electrons in a p&nbsp;subshell, ten electrons in a d&nbsp;subshell and fourteen electrons in an f&nbsp;subshell.
 
The numbers of electrons that can occupy each shell and each subshell arise from the equations of quantum mechanics,<ref name="SchrodNote">In formal terms, the [[quantum number]]s ''n'', ''ℓ'' and ''m''{{sub|ℓ}} arise from the fact that the solutions to the time-independent [[Schrödinger equation]] for [[hydrogen-like atom]]s are based on [[spherical harmonics]].</ref> in particular the [[Pauli exclusion principle]], which states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same values of the four [[quantum number]]s.<ref>{{GoldBookRef|file=PT07089|title=Pauli exclusion principle}}</ref>
 
 
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