দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দের শিক্ষাক্রম

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
২০১৮ সালে দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দ

দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দ ভারতের উত্তরপ্রদেশের সাহারানপুর জেলায় অবস্থিত একটি মাদ্রাসা, যা ১৮৬৬ সালের ৩০ মে প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়। প্রতিষ্ঠালগ্ন থেকে এটি একটি মৌলিক শিক্ষাক্রম অনুসরণ করে যা দরসে নেজামি নামে পরিচিত। দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দে এটি উল্লেখযোগ্য সংস্কারের সাথে চালু করা হয়েছিল।[১] পরবর্তীতে দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দের অনুসরণে সারাবিশ্বে অসংখ্য শিক্ষাপ্রতিষ্ঠান গড়ে উঠে। তাই এটি দরসে নেজামি মাদ্রাসার মূল আদর্শ হিসেবে স্বীকৃত।[২] দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দের শিক্ষাক্রম মোট ৩টি ধাপে সমাপ্ত হয়: প্রাথমিক শিক্ষা, ফাযেল কোর্স এবং তাখাচ্ছুছাত। প্রাথমিক শিক্ষা বা দীনিয়াত বিভাগের ব্যপ্তি মোট ৫ বছর। ফাযেল কোর্স বা আলেম কোর্সের ব্যপ্তি মোট ৮ বছর। ফাযেল কোর্স দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দের সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কোর্স। এই কোর্স সমাপ্তকারীদের আলেম বলা হয়৷ ফাযেল কোর্সের মান সাধারণ শিক্ষার স্নাতকের সমান। ফাযেল কোর্স পরবর্তী বিভিন্ন বিষয়ের বিষেশায়িত উচ্চশিক্ষা তাখাচ্ছুছাত নামে পরিচিত। বিষয় অনুযায়ী এটি ১, ২ বছর বা আরও বেশি হতে পারে।

ফাযেল কোর্সের প্রথম চার বছরকে ছানুভী বিভাগ বলা হয়৷ এই বিভাগে আরবি নাহু ছরফ, আরবি ইনশা মান্তেক (তর্কবিদ্যা), কুরআন তরজমা এবং ইসলামি ইতিহাস সহ ইসলামের মৌলিক বিষয়ে শিক্ষা দেওয়া হয়। আর শেষ চার বছরে ইলুমল বালাগাত, ফাসাহাত, তাফসির, উসূলে তাফসির, ফিকহ, উসূলে ফিকহ, হাদিস ও উসূলে হাদিসের পাঠ দান করা হয়৷ শেষ বছরকে দাওরায়ে হাদিস বলা হয়। এতে সিহাহ সিত্তাহসহ মোয়াত্তাইন ও তহাবী এবং শামায়েলে তিরমিজীর পাঠদান করা হয়৷

ফাযেল কোর্স পরবর্তী বিশেষায়িত উচ্চশিক্ষা বা তাখাচ্ছুছাতের মধ্যে রয়েছে তাদরিব ফিল ইফতা, তাজবিদ, তাখাস্সুস ফিল হাদিস, তাকমিল আদব, তাকমিল তাফসির ইত্যাদি।[৩][৪][৫]

প্রেক্ষাপট[সম্পাদনা]

In the prophetic era education began with the Holy Quran . During the caliphate of Hazrat Umar special arrangement was made , along with the teaching of the Quran , for the teaching and learning , and dissemination and publication of the Hadith lore also . As time rolled on and educational needs multiplied , as per necessity , disciplines also continued to be ad ded . Till the middle of the second century hijri , arts and sciences were restricted to the Quran , Hadith , Fiqh and the Arabic poetry . Thereafter , till the end of the fourth century hijri , which is called the age of invention and redaction , the invention of different arts and sciences and their translations came into being along with civilisational growth and progress , and as per necessity some arts also began to be taught . As such , Hadith , Tafsir , Figh , Principles of Figh , Grammar and Syntax , Lexicon , Arabic poetry and History were considered the subjects for scholastic education of that period . Medicine , Astrology , Astronomy and some other Greek sciences can also be added to this syllabi . Between the fifth and the seventh century hijri the science of Dialectics or Scholastic Theology was established through Imam Ghazali and for the support of which , besides the afore - said sciences , noetic sciences like Logic , Philosophy , etc also became a necessary ingredient in the curriculum of the Islamic schools and universities . Though these sciences were current , more or less , in all the Islamic lands , nevertheless the impact of national , local and ethnic peculiarities I was inevitable in different countries . Since Arab families had settled in . countries like Egypt , Syria , etc. in great numbers , giving predominance to Arab leanings in these countries , sciences like Tafsir , Hadith and Asma al - Rijal were comparatively paid more heed to . In Andalusia ( Spain ) , litera ture , poetry and history had acquired great ascendency . In Iran , logic and philosophy were predominant , and in Khurasan and Transoxiana , Figh , Principles of Righ and Tasawwuf were more in the vogue . At the same time , however , due to influences of the milieu and demands of the environs , the process of change and alteration in the syllabi has often taken place in different periods in one and the same country . Although the Muslims had reached India in the very first century hijri and a pretty good increase took place in their number in the beginning of the fifth century hijri , that is , during Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi's period , when , besides Sind , the area of the Punjab too had been included in the Islamic dominions , the period of their real influence begins from the beginning of seventh century hijri , that is , from the regime of Sultan Shahab al - Din Ghuri ( 597/1191 - 602/1205 ) . It was that period when in Khurasan , Transoxiana , etc. , though , along with Tafsir and Hadith , Grammar and Syntax , Rhetorics and Literature , Jurisprudence , Logic , Scholastic Theology and Tasawwuf were being considered the standard learning , Jurisprudence and the Principles of Jurisprudence held higher importance The Muslims that had come to India had mostly come from these very countries , and , naturally therefore , the coming of their leanings too was inevitable . As such , all these sciences were included and were a part and parcel of the syllabi of this era in India . Maulana Hakim Sayyid Abd al - Hayy Lakhnavi has fixed the following four periods of the old Indian curriculum:

প্রথম পর্যায়[সম্পাদনা]

Its beginning should be taken from the seventh century hijri and its end in the tenth at a time when the second period had begun . For more or less two hundred years the acquirement of the following disciplines was considered the standard of learning Grammar , Syntax , Literature , Rhetorics , Figh , Principles of Figh , Logic , Scholastic Theology , Tasawwuf , Tafsir and Hadith . In Grammar , Misbah , Kafia , Lubb al - Albab by Qazi Nasir al - Din , and Irshad by Qazi Shahab al - Din Daulatabadi . In Figh , Hedaya , in Principles of Fiqh , Manar and its commentaries , and Usul - e Bezoodi . in Tafsir , Mudarik , Baizavi and Kashshaf . In Tasawwuf , Awarif , Fusus al - Hikam , and after a long time , Naqd al Nasus and Lama'at had also come into vogue in those madrasahs which were attached to hospices . In Hadith , Mashariq al - Anwar and Misbah al - Sunnah ( i.e. , the text of the Mishkat al - Masabih ) . In Literature , Maqamat - e Hariri used to be committed to memory . It appears from Hazrat Nizam al - Din Awlia's discourses ( malfuzat ) that he had read the Maqamat under the instruction of Shams al - Din Khwarazmi and had memorized forty maqamas . In Logic , Sharh - e Shamsiah . In Scholastic Theology , Sharh - e Saha'if , and at some places , Tamhid - e Abu Shakoor Salimi . It appears from the particulars of the ulema of this class that Fiqh and Usul e Fiqh were considered the highest criterion of learning and merit in their period . In Hadith the study of Mashariq al - Anwar alone was con sidered sufficient , and for more understanding and expertise in Hadith the Masabih was the ultimate . The peculiarities that are seen in the curriculim of this period were the result of the effective taste of the conquerors of India . The people who laid the throne of Islamic state in India had come from Ghazni and Ghur . These were those places where proficiency in Fiqh and Usool - e Figh was considered a diploma of distinction ; the rank of jurisprudential traditions in these countries was very high.

দ্বিতীয় পর্যায়[সম্পাদনা]

In the late ninth century hijri , Shaikh Abd Allah and Shaikh Aziz Allah , in order to elevate the previous standard somewhat , introduced Qazi ' Adad's books , Matal'e and Mawaqif , and Sukaki's Miftah al - Ulum in the syllabi . As regards the particulars of the afore - said august men , Badauni has stated : " Both these respectable men came to India ( Hindustan ) at the time of the devastation of Multan . They brought rational sciences into vogue in that land ; earlier than this , in logic and scholastic theology nothing but Sharh - e Shamsiah and Sharh - e Saha'if was current " . In this period Mir Sayyid Sharif's disciples brought Sharh - e Matal'e and Sharh - e Mawaqif into vogue and Tafta Zani's disciples con ventionalized Mutawwal , Mukhtasar al - Ma'ani , Takveeh and Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Nasafi . Moreover , in this period Sharh - e Waqaya and Sharh - e Jami were also introduced in the syllabus . In the end of this period Shaikh Abd al - Haq Muhaddith Dehelvi , having studied the science of Hadith under the instruction of the ulema of the two holy cities ( Mecca and Madina ) , tried to encourage and bring into limelight the study of the science of Hadith . After him his son , Shaikh Nur al - Haq , also tried to spread the study of Hadith but did not meet with success . If the above - mentioned books of this period , i.e. , Matal'e and Mawaqif , and their commentaries - Mutawwal , Mukhtasar , Taiweeh , Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Nasfi , Sharh - e Waqaya , Sharh - e Jami - are added to the list of the books given in the First Period , the list of the syllabus of the second period can be easily prepared . It appears from the chronicles of the eminent ulema of this period that even as Sadra and Shams - e Bazigha are held to be the ultimate books in our own time , Sukaki's Miftah al - Ulum and Qazi Adad's Matal'e and Mawaqif were considered the ultimate books in their period . Badauni , while writing the chronicles of the ulema of this era , has hinted at this here and there .

তৃতীয় পর্যায়[সম্পাদনা]

The people's aspirations had increased due to the change that took place in the syllabus of the second period and now they were wishing to raise the standard of proficiency still further.Mir Fath Allah came to India from Shiraz . Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomed him by awarding him the title of ' Adad al - Mulk . He made some new additions to the previous syl labi which the ulema readily accepted . In his Ma'athir al - Karam , Mir Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami writes : " He ( Mir Fath Allah Shirazi ) brought the works of the latter ulema of the Vilayat ( Persia ) like Muhaqqiq Dawwani , Mir Sadr al - Din , Mir Ghiyas al - Din Mansoor , and Mirza Jan Mir , to India and introudced them into the circle . of study , and a large crowd of attendants derived benefit from the Mir's assembly , and from that time the rational sciences got a new currency " .¹ Hazrat Shah Wali Allah who was the last but the most illustrious divire of this era has given his syllabus in his Al - Juz al - Latif in the following order : - Syntax Kafia , Sharh - e Jami . Logic : Sharh - e Shamsiah , Sharh - e Matal'e . Philosophy Sharh - e Hedayat al - Hikmah . Scholastic Theology : Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Nasafi with Hashhia - e Khiyali , Sharh - e Mawaqif . Figh Sharh - e Waqaya , Hedaya ( Complete ) . Usool - e Figh : Husami and something of Tauzih - Talvih . Rhetorics Mukhtasar and Mutawwal . Astronomy & Arithmetic some brief treatises . Medicine Mu'ajjaz al - Qanoon . Hadith Mishkat al - Masabih , Shama'll - e Tirmizi , and some portion of the Sahih - e Bukhari . Tafsir ( Exegesis ) : Mudarik and Baizavi . Tasawwuf & Suluk ' Awarif and Rasa'il - e Naqshbandiyya , Sharh - e Rubayyat - e Jami , Muqaddama - e Sharh - e Lama'at , Muqaddama - e Naqd al - Nasus . After having studied this syllabus , Hazrat Shah Sahib went to the holy cities ( Mecca and Madina ) and , sojourning there for fourteen months , he completed the study of the science of Hadith under the instruction of Shaikh Abu Tahir Kurdi . On returning to India he disseminated it so assidu ously that the effects thereof are still extant . Hazrat Shah Wali Allah and his able sons and descendants , by their effort and endeavour , made the teaching and imparting of the Sihah Sitta an integral part of the syllabus . Shah Sahib had structured a new course of study also . But in those days the centre of gravity of knowledge had shifted from Delhi to Lucknow . Moreover , the new relation that had developed with Iran during the period of Humayun and Akbar had gradually produced a new change in the academic taste in India . Through the influence of the Iranian nobles and ulema of the Mughal Court , Logic and Philosophy , which were ab initio considered the highest criterion of learning in Iran , were gaining superiority , slowly but steadily , over other sciences ; and hence Shah Sahib's restructuring of the course could not gain general popularity .

চতুর্থ পর্যায়[সম্পাদনা]

The fourth period began from the twelfth century hijri .[৬] Its founder was . Mulla Nizam al - Din Sahalvi , who was contemporary of Hazrat Shah Wali Allah . The curriculum known as " Dars - e Nizami " , which is current today . in all the Arabic schools , is a relic from him . Adding something more to the syllabi of the third period , Mulla Nizam al - Din prepared the following . syllabus Conjugation ( Sarf ) Mizan , Munsha'ab , Sarf - e Mir , Panj Ganj , Zubda , Fusul - e Akbari , Shafiah . Syntax ( Nahv ) : Nahv - e Mir , Sharh - e Mi'ata Amil , Hedayat al - Nahv , Kafia , Sharh - e Jami . Logic Sughra , Kubra , Aisaghoji , Tehzib , Sharh - e Tehzib , Qutbi , Mir Qutbi , Sallam al - Ulum . Philosophy Mebazi , Sadra , Shams - e Bazigha . Arithmetic & Astronomy : Khulasat al - Hisab , Tehrir - e Uqlidas ( Discourse I ) , Tashrih al - Aflaak , Risala - e Qaushjia , Sharh - e Chaghmini ( Chapter 1 ) . Rhetorics : Mukhtasar al - Ma'ani , Mutawwal ( upto Ma Ana Qalat ) . Fiah Sharh - e Waqaya ( Awwalin ) , Hedaya ( Akhirin ) . # Usool - e Figh : Nur al - Anwar , Tauzih - Talvih , Musallim al - Suboot Scholastic Theology : Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Nasafi , Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Jalali , Mir Zahid , Sharh - e Mawaqif . Tafsir Jalalayn Sharif , Baizavi ( Sura - e Baqrah ) . Hadith Mishkat al - Masabih . The great peculiarity of this syllabus is that more attention has been paid in it to the creation of depth of insight and power of reading in the student , and although immediately after the completion of this course proficiency is not acquired in any particular subject , this much ability is surely created that , through one's own independent reading and labour , one may acquire proficiency in any subject of one's liking . The standard of Hadith and Tafsir in this course too is not much high , and of literature there is included no book at all . In the middle of the thirteenth century hijri there were three centres of thought of education in India : Delhi , Lucknow and Khairabad . Though the syllabi of the three were somewhat common , the points of view of all the three were different . More attention was being paid to Hadith and Tafsir in Delhi . Hazrat Shah Wali Allah's family was assiduously busy in the dissemination and teaching of the Book and the sunnah , and the noetics were of a secondary position . In Lucknow the old seventh - century - hijri tenor was dominant over the ulema of Farangimahal : Figh and Principles of Fiqh had had more importance in their centre . In Tafsir , Jalalayn and Baizavi , and in Hadith , Mishkat al - Masabih alone , were considered sufficient . The academic subjet at the Khairabad centre was virtually restricted to logic and philosophy ; these subjects were taught with such care and assuduity that the teaching of all other sciences had almost become eclipsed before them.

শিক্ষাক্রম[সম্পাদনা]

In the second half of the thirteenth century hijri the educational centrality of Delhi and Khairabad had come to an end ; however , some light of knowledge was still lingering in Lucknow . Although the centrality of these places had ended , the distinctive peculiarities of all these three centres were extant , more or less , in all the Arabic schools of India . The Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , has not only preserved the greatness of these sciences but has also played an important role in developing them . The peculiarities of all these three places have been gathered in the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum , and the syllabus thus prepared with their amalgamation has been in force generally for more or less a century in all the Arabic schools in the country . At some places other modern syllabi are also current . Amongst such seminaries the position of Nadvat al - Ulama , Lucknow , is most conspicuous , but this type of syllabus is not very common . Inspite of the afore - said comprehensiveness of the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum , even as changes and alterations have taken place in the syllabi in every period as per the demands of the age , similar elimination and addition has been done , in accordance with the zeitgeist , from time to time , in the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum also , in which , along with the religious sciences , contemporary sciences and economic necessities too , on the whole , have been paid attention to , endeavouring to make it more and more useful . The present syllabus consists of four stages : Primary , Middle , High , Mastery ( Post - graduate stage ) . The post - graduate class is not compulsory ; if the student wants to acquire mastery in any subject or topic , he can take admission in the post - graduate class and continue his education The curriculum of the Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , as detailed below , consists of the fallowing arts and sciences and books.

অষ্টম বর্ষের শিক্ষাক্রম[সম্পাদনা]

প্রথম বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Subject Books Conjugation Grammer : ( Sarf ) Arabic Primer ; Mizan al - Sarf and Munsha'ab ( complete ) ; Panj Ganj ( complete ) . Syntax ( Nahv ) : Memorizing of Nahv - e Mir ( compl . ) ; Sharh - e Mi'ata A'mil ( compl . ) . Arabic Literature Rauzat al - Adab ( omitting Bab al - Makateeb ) ; Insha - e Arabi ( Prose ) ; Arabi ka Mu'allim ( Parts 1 & 11 ) . Logic : Taiseer al - Mantiq . Correct writing and Dictation . Chirography : ( Khush - navisi ) Cantillation :: ( Tajvid ) Exercise in cantillation in the first quarter of the Para - e Amm and Traditional Invocations .

দ্বিতীয় বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Books Nur al - Ezah ( compl . ) ; Qaduri ( upto Kitab al - Hajj ) . Hedayat al - Nahv ( compl . ) ; Al - Nahv al - Wazeh ( Elementary Part 1 ) . ' Ilm al - Sigha ( upto Khasiyyat ) ; Fusool - e Akbari ( from Khasiyyat ) . Nafahat al - Adab ( compl . ) ; Tamrin - e Arabi . Mirqat and Tehzib . Exercise in the last one - third of the Para - e Amm with memorising . Jamal al - Quran ( compl . ) . Correct writing and Dictation.

তৃতীয় বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Subject Books Tarjumat al - Quran ( Sura - e Baqrah ) . Quranic Exegesis : ( ( Tafsir ) Jurisprudence : Qaduri ( from Kitab al - Buyu till the end ) . Syntax : Ibn ' Aqeel ( upto 300 pages ) , Sharh - e Jami ( Verb and Particle ) , Arabic Literature : Nafahat al - Arab ( Prose ) . Logic : Sharh - e Tehzib ( upto Zabita ) ; Qutbi ( Tasciqaat ) . Hadith : Mishkat al - Athaar . Contemporary Subjects : ( A ) ( 1 ) Tarikh - e Hind ( from the regime of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi till A.D. 1947 . ( 2 ) Tarikh - e Islam ( Khulafa - e Rashidin , Bani Umayya , Bani Abbas , Tarikh - e Saltanat - e Turki ) ( 3 ) Municipalities ( Elementary Civics ) . ( B ) ( 1 ) Geography of the Arab Peninsula and other Islamic countries . ( 2 ) World Geography ( Regionwise ) . Subject Jurisprudence : ( Figh ) Syntax : Conjugation : Arabic Literature Logic : Cantillation : Chirography :

চতুর্থ বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Books Tarjumat al - Quran ( from Sura - e Aal - e Imran upto Sura - e Mariam ) . Kanz al - Daqa'iq ( upto Kitab al - Nikah ) ; Sharh - e Waqaya , vol . ii ( upto Kitab al - ' Itaq ) . Usool al - Shashi ( compl . ) . Books Rhetorics Mukhtasar al - Ma'ani ( upto the end of the second subject ) ; Talkhis al - Miftah ( only the third . subject ) . Logic : Sallam al - Ulum ( upto the end of Tasawwurat ) Philosophy Hadya - e Sa'eed ( First half ) . Hadith : Alfiyat al - Hadith . ( Contemporary ) Modern ( A ) ( 1 ) General Science ( Elementary Chemistry , Sciences Physics , Zoology , Botany all theoretical ) ; Principles of Hygiene . ( B ) ( 1 ) Some Essential Chapters of the Constitution of India . ( 2 ) Elementary Economics . ( 3 ) The Theories and Biographies of Some Modern Philosophers.

পঞ্চম বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Subject Books Jurisprudence : Hedaya : First Quarter , Second Quarter . Arabic Literature Maqamat - e Hariri ( 10 Maqalas ) . Logic : Mulla Hasan ( upto Jins ) . Principles of Jurisprudence : Nur al - Anwar ( upto Qiyas ) Beliefs ( ' Aqa'id ) Aqidat al - Tahavi ( compl . ) Rhetorics : Al - Balaghat al - Wazeha . Subject Quranic Exegesis : Jurisprudence : Principles of Jurisprudence Subject

ষষ্ঠ বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Subject Tafsir Usool - e Tafsir : Usool - e Figh Philosophy Arabic Literature : Subject Figh : Aqa'id wa Kalam Tafsir : Hadith : Usool - e Hadith : Fara'iz : Optional Subjects : Usool - e Tafsir : Usool - e Hadith : Subject Kalam : Logic : Literature : SIXTH YEAR Jalalayn Sharif ( compl . ) Al - Fawz al - Kabir ( compl . ) . Husami ( compl . ) . Mebazi ( compl . ) . Divan - e Mutanabbi ( upto the end of the rhyme Dal ) ; Tamrin - e Arabi ( Arabic Exercises ) ; Insha - e Muhadatha ( Colloquial Prose ) ; Cantillation or Chirography.

সপ্তম বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Books Hedaya ( last portion ) : Daily Two Hours . Sharh - e ' Aqa'id - e Nasafi ( compl ) . Baizavi ( one and a quarter portion of Sura - e Baqrah ) . Mishkat Sharif ( compl . ) . Sharh - e Nakhbat al - Fikr ( compl . ) ( Two Hours Daily ) Siraji ( compl . ) . Talkhis al - Itqan . Muqaddama - e Ibn Salah . Books Masamarah . Hamd Allah . Divan - e Himasa ( Bab al - Adab wal - Himasa ) Al - Nathr al - Jadid . Books Two Hours Daily

অষ্টম বর্ষ[সম্পাদনা]

Hadith : Tafsir : Subject Subject Subject Subject Tafsir : Hikmat - e Shariyah : ( Religious Philosophy ) Munazira ( Polemics ) Figh : Usool - e Figh : Usool - e Hadith : Hadith & Figh : EIGHTH YEAR DAURA - E HADITH Books Bukhari Sharif ( compl . ) .; Muslim Sharif ( compl . ) . Tirmizi Sharif ( compl . ) ; Abu Da'ud Sharif ( compl . ) Nasa'i Sharif , Ibn Maja Sharif , Tahavi Sharif Shama'il - e Tirmizi Sharif . Mu'attaayn ( The Two Mu'attas ).

স্নাতকোত্তর[সম্পাদনা]

POST - GRADUATE CLASSES Completion

Mastery in Tafsir[সম্পাদনা]

Books Tafsir - e Mudarik : Para 1-5 Tafsir - e Mudarik : Para 6-10 Tafsir - e Mazhari : Para 11-15 Books Tafsir - e Mazhari : Para 16-20 Tafsir - e Baizavi : Para 21-25 Tafsir - e Baizavi : Para 26-30 Talkhis al - Itqan

Mastery in Theology[সম্পাদনা]

Books Tafsir - e Ibn Kathir ( Sura - e Baqrah & Aal - e Imran ) . Hujjat Allahil Baligha Rasheediyah . Al - Ishbah wal - Naza'ir ( upto subject 1 ) Tauzih Talwih . Muqaddama - e Ibn Salah . Muqaddama - e Fath al - Mujtahid ; Tadrib al - Ravi al - Bari , Bedayat

Mastery in Literature[সম্পাদনা]

Poetry : Prose Subject Books Divan - e Hassan bin Thabit Sab'a Mu'allaqa ( upto three poems ) . Asalib al - Insha Jara'id wa Rasa'il

Mastery in Literature[সম্পাদনা]

Subject History of Literature Insha ( Belles - Letters ) General Reading : ( contd . ) Books Tarikh al - Adab al - Arabi Magalat - e Arabi . Hayati by Ahmed Amin ; Al - Ayyam by Dr. Taha Husain , ' Ibraat by Manfaluti ; ' Abqariyaat by Mahmud ' Iqaar.

Mastery in Noetics[সম্পাদনা]

Subject Rational Sciences : General Reading Books Qazi Mubarak ( upto Ummahat al - Matalib ) . Hamd Allah ( upto Shartiyaat ) . Sadra ( upto the discussion on physical forms ) , Shams - e Bazigha ( upto the discussion on Makan - p.40 ) . Sharh - e ' Aqaid - e Jalali ( upto the discussion an Aslah - p . 72 ) . Musallim al - Thubut ( 4 chapters ) . Muqaddama - e Ibn Khaldun . Risala - e Hameediya.

প্রাথমিক শিক্ষা[সম্পাদনা]

According to the rules of the Dar al - Ulum , the completion of the following primary course is necessary for reaching the said " Arabic Classes " : - The Quran Class ( 1 ) First of all it is necessasary to be able to read at least the Holy Quran . Before the reading of the Quran generally the primer which is known as Qa'ida - e Baghdadi is taught . The acquiring of the ability to read Quran takes more or less two years . The estimate of this period is for those small children who may have been started to read at the age of five years and may have average intelligence ; otherwise intelligent children can complete the reading of the Quran even in less time .. The period of committing the Holy Quran to memory is more or less three years.

(2)After completing the Quran the learning of Urdu and Persian is also necessary , but the Department of Cantillation is also there for those . children who wish to be trained in Cantillation and Orthoepy after having memorized the Quran . The Cantillation Class In the course of this class , along with the practice of cantillation and orthoepy , the following books are also taught : Jamal al - Quran , Ma'rifat al - Waqoof , Fawa'id - e Makkia , Shatibia , Rai'yya , Tayyiba . This is a 2 - year course . It has been made compulsory for every student of the Arabic class that , along with other lessons , he should take admission for one period in this department and should practise to read at least the Para - e Amm with cantillation . Urdu Diniyaat ( Theology in Urdu )

( 3 ) Next to the Holy Quran class is the department of Urdu Diniyaat in which , besides the teaching of Theology in the Urdu language , Arithmetic and other subjects are also taught . The couse of this department is spread over four years .

The Persian Class ( 4 ) Next to the Urdu Diniyaat department is the Department of Persian in which primary books of Persian Prose and Poetry , Arithmetic , Geography , Hindi and Arabic Grammar are included in the course . This department also consists of four classes . Over and above the primary classes the classes for practice and teach ing are as follows : Modern Sciences ( 1 ) One department is for modern sciences , in which English language and contemporary sciences are taught . The course of this department is of one year . Practice of Fetwa - writing ( Ifta ) : There is a department for the practice of fetwa - writing also for those who may have graduated in the Daura - e Hadith . The period of training of this too is one year . Jamia - e Tibbia :-( 2 ) An educational department of the Dar al - Ulum is Jamia e Tibbia also in which graduates of the Daura - e Hadith can take admission . Its course of study extends over four years and its syllabus consists of books of the Unani system of medicine as well as books of allopathy . Department of Chirography or Calligraphy :-( 3 ) Graduates of the Daura - e Hadith can take admission in this cepartment also . The period of practice here is one year . This department also renders the service of correcting and improving the handwriting of the students of the Arabic classes.

শিক্ষাদানের পদ্ধতি[সম্পাদনা]

The method of teaching of the Dar al - Ulum can be divided into three grades Primary Intermediate High . The aim before the teachers in the primary grades consists in creating in the students the ability to comprehend the contents of a book . Hence in these grades more stress is laid on the comprehension of the book . In the middle or intermediate classes , along with the comprehension of the book , such topics are also brought on the tapis besides the text book under study which may be essential for broadening the students " minds and for elevating their mental standard . In the higher classes complete stress is laid on the teaching and understanding of the subject under study , but at the same time the comprehension of the book is not overlooked . The method of teaching in the Dar al - Ulum is this that the student first reads the textual passage . Now it is the duty of the teacher to lecture so comprehensively on the read out passage technically that light may be thrown on every aspect and question of the concerned passage . The teacher tries to gather in all the necessary informations regarding the topic in his discussion , and he , applying his lecture to the passage , may satisfy AMOUS the student . The students are quite free and unrestricted during the lesson . www They are considered entitled to it that as long as they may not understand the lesson fully and may not hear satisfactory answers to all the objections that may crop up in their minds regarding the problems under study , they may not allow the teacher to proceed further . The result of this method is WAY POL 10 that , on the one hand , the student attends the lecture fully prepared and , on the other , the teacher also finds himself constrained to teach with full preparation and attention . As a rule , in the lessons of the text - books the teachers ' attention is concentrated on this matter that the ability to understand the book may be created in the students and they may know the method of understanding the author's motive . In the Science of Hadith , besides the Mishkat al - Masabih , the follow ing books are included in the course Sahih - e Bukhari , Sahih - e Muslim , Jama'e Tirmizi , Sunan - e Abi Da'ud , Sunan - e Nasa'i , Sunan - e Ibn Maja , Mu'atta - e Imam Malik , Mu'atta - e Imam Muhammad , Sharh - e Ma'ani al - Athaar - e Tahavi , Shama'il - e Tirmizi . Amongst the above - mentioned books the first four are completed wholly and their topics are thoroughly discussed . It is not necessary to read the remaining books wholly . In the few lessons of these books the teachers deliver such lectures whereby the purpose of the book is known . Since the greater part of hadiths in the former and the latter books is common , there arises no need of separate discussion of the latter .. In the lecture on Hadith discussion as regards adaptation ( jarah wa ta'dil , lit. , objection and adjustment ) of the narrators of Hadith is , wherever necessary , only brief . Instead of this more attention is paid to the technique of Hadith so that more and more power of deduction of proposi tions and the method of educing may be developed in the students and they may fully understand the method of eduction of the Imams of Figh . However , if the Imams of the practical methods of religion ( mazahib ) have at any time needed to pay special attention to any authority or narrator , it becomes ineluctable to bring it under discussion during the course of the lesson .

But the arguments of the four Imams , their principles of the deduction of propositions and the answers on behalf of the Hanafite to the arguments of the three Imams are brought home to the students in such a sober and academic manner that nothing is detracted from the weightiness and glory of any one of the four Imams . Rather , the arguments and proofs of the three Imams are presented before the students with great broad mindedness . Since most of the books of Hadith and Tafsir that are included in the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum have been compiled by the Shafi'ite and Malekite Imams , their arguments inevitably come before the students ; hence it becomes necessary for the teachers that they establish the Hanafite tack to be preferable in the light of arguments and evidences in such a way that the casuistic greatness of the three Imams may remain intact , admitting no distinction . The zestful students of higher classes , in accordance with the style of the predecessors , consider it necessary to jot down the teacher's lecture . As such , Hazrat Gangohi's and Hazrat Shaikh al - Hind's lectures on Tirmizi , entitled Nafh al - Shazzi and Al - Wird al - Shazzi , and Hazrat Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri's lecture on the Sahih - e Bukhari , entitled Al - Arf al - Shazzi and Fayz al - Bari ( which is in four bulky volumes ) are the result of the same taste for jotting down . These are only a few examples of such jotted lectures which have been published ; otherwise those that are still awaiting publication are too many to be counted . These gem - scraps of the academic commodity are abundantly available with the graduates of the Dar al - Ulum . The teacher's medium of experssion while lecturing and teaching is Urdu- the language which is spoken and understood throughout India . However , it is tried to explain to those students who do not understand Urdu , in other languages until they become able to understand Urdu . The importance the mother tongue commands in the teaching of arts and sciences could be realised in the present system of education in Incia after a long time . This is an undeniable and incontrovertible fact that the ease with which academic matters are understood through the mother - tongue and are retained in memory is not possible in any other tongue . But the dominance of the English paramountcy had so much come home to and dominated the minds of the nation that it could not get a clue to this reality for a long time . Amongst the Indian universities the first to realise the importance of mother tongue for education were Jamia - e Osmania , Hyderabad , Deccan , and Jamia - e Millia , Delhi . They also put this thought into practice and achieved remarkabie success at both the places , and thus presented an example to be followed by other universities ; and now this demand has been generally accepted by the universities in India that the mother - tongue should be made the medium of education . In this connection , anyhow , the Dar al - Ulum bears the palm ; the educa tional experts of the twentieth century at last were constrained to arrive at the same conclusion which had been understood in the Dar al - Ulum a hundred years ago!"[ক]

শিক্ষাগত বৈশিষ্ট্য[সম্পাদনা]

As much as the word education is simple and brief , to the same extent it is important , affecting the deepest recesses of the soul . Education is not merely the name of pictures of letters , phonetory lines , dialects and big and small books . On the contrary it is the name of such an intellectual , mental and academical training through which the latent faculties and talent of man are developed to be adorned and organized and human sentiments and feelings are civilized and polished by bringing them under an excellent and lofty ideal , so that useful fruits and consequences thereof may be brought into play for mankind . It is a very difficult task to teach man to use his talents correctly but it is as much necessary as it is difficult In other words , if education is limited to merely knowing the unknown things , then it is not something extraordinary , but if it is employed for action , then its difficulties are increased manifold . Although every nation of the world apprecaites the value of knowledge , the Muslims ' view of knowledge is quite different from that of the other nations . The non Muslims acquire knowledge so that through it they may gain power and greatness , progress and superiority in the world . Knowledge for the most part is considered the means of acquiring wealth but it is a peculiarity of the Muslims that instead of a means they have considered knowledge an end ; they have never considered it a means of livelihood . The Muslims have always acquired knowledge for the sake of knowledge ; they never acquired it in order to earn their livelihood through it . According to the Muslims the acquisition of knowledge is a duty , by discharging which a Muslim , besides woridly benefit , also gains absolution in the afterlife . The statement of the Sovereign of the Universe ( Allah's peace and blessings be upon him ! ) is - " It is an obligation upon every Muslim man and Muslim woman to acquire knowledge " . This obligatoriness has been made necessary for action only , and it is incumbent upon every person as per need . It is an acknowledged fact of history that no nation in the world could become exalted until its powers of knowledge and action did not awaken . Education alone is the means through which spiritual and moral , civilisational and cultural progress can be made , which is the raison d'etre for the creation of humanity . In view of such progress it is essential that every seeker of knowledge provided . an opportunity to develop his talents in the best possible manner . In other words , it is the primary duty of society that it provide such facilities whereby every student may display his best talents . In fact , nations are made through knowledge and are deteriorated through ignorance . On this account it is necessary that every person should have equal opportunities . for the acquirement of knowledge . Emanicipating knowledge from the monoply of the particular stratas of society , Islam has done such a great obligation upon humanity that it is difficult to assess it . The history of every developed nation is a witness to the fact that the secret of its progress and advancement is hidden in its commonalty's . being educated , and this is not easy until there is arrangement for free eduation . In the present system of education the heaviness of expenses has deprived the majority of the advantages of education . After an experi ence of hundreds of years the educational experts of the twentieth century I have at last arrived at the conclusion that the education of the common people ought to be free , and as long as this system is not adopted, it is difficult for education to be universal.

পুরোনো শিক্ষা ব্যবস্থা[সম্পাদনা]

In our old system of education this principle was always put into practice . Accordingly , in the mode of the education that had been adopted in these schools , the educational expenses were charged to the institutions rather than to the students . In this system of education fees were not chargeable , and not only this but text - books also had to be provided for the students gratis . Then not only this that the education was free and no rent was charged from the students for the boarding house but destitute and poor students were also given cash stipends by the institutions for food , clothes and other necessities . It is that speciality of the Arabic schools the example of which is not found in any other educa tional system of the world . Besides this , in the Arabic schools never such a restriction was laid on the acquirement of knowledge whereby the doors of teaching and learning . might have been closed for certain individuals of the community . On the contrary , every man who had any zest for the acquisition of knowledge could acquire knowiege in them without any let or hindrance . Our schools have always been free from the restriction of age and avocation and never has been allowed in them the discrimination of race and colour , wealthi ness and poverty , the high and the low . On this account the ways of acquiring the highest possible education have remained unceremoniously open for every man , no matter to whichever ethnic group he belongs and howevermuch a man of slender means he may be . In the educational history of the Muslims innumerable such scholars and men of accomplish ments will be met who ancestrally belonged to small and high occupations . The principle of keeping eduction more and more exempt from restrictions . and conditions has always been observed in the religious schools . The world has learnt the lifting of restrictions on education of the mean occupations from Islam only . The thing for which Europe is being credited today of bearing away the palm is in fact a reflection of the Arabic schools only , yet the world has still to learn from these schools the philosophy of lifting the restriction of age - limit . Accordingly , the foundation thereof has been laid in the form of " Adult Education " 1 . Now the time does not seem to be far off when this curse will be removed from the universities of the world.

বিনামূল্যে শিক্ষা[সম্পাদনা]

The same traditions of our old system of education are the distinguish ing feature of the Dar al - Ulum . Here also fees are not charged from the students , Food , clothes and cash stipends are given by the Dar al - Ulum to all resourceless and needy students , and text - books and accommodation are provided free of charge to every affording and non - affording student . The result of this is that the education of the Dar al - Ulum has not been a speciality , a preserve of the well - heeled only but even the most impoverished man can get his children adorned with education through it ; its grace is universal and , in proportion to capability , full . The Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , is the first and the pioneer educational institution in India , established on the principle of free education and has been running this free system of education with enviable success for more than a century.[খ]

শিক্ষাগত স্বায়ত্তশাসন[সম্পাদনা]

The Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , is also the first educational institution which presented the concept of " Autonomous System of Education " during the British regime in India and assiduously endeavoured to maintain intellectual liberty of the nation in an atmosphere of political slavery . Though this was a very difficult work , the Dar al - Ulum , by practising it , made it easy . Inspite of the offer of the British Government the Dar al - Ulum never accepted this aid . Hence it has remained free from many such restri ctions which necessarily come in with the government grand - in - aid . It is being said by certain people that when the government was willing to give valuable financial aid to the Dar al - ulum , it was not proper on its part to decline and abstain from accepting it ; howevermuch generosity the community may show , it cannot compete with the substantial help of the government . These people most probably failed to notice this point that it is necessary to keep the Arabic schools free from the influence of the state , for though it be a governmen : of the Muslims , unless it be a government of the purely Islamic style , its politics cannot be candid and unalloyed , whereas such education is required for the Arabic schools that may be absolutely free from all sorts of un - Islamic influence and extrane ous practice . Hence the Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , never accepted any aid from the government in power ; its entire resource and capital consists in reliance on Allah . The Dar al - Ulum has been busy in the service of the religion depending only on the Muslim masses , and notwithstanding the swift and severe vicissitudes of day and night it is maintaining itself and going on with its old dignity and traditions . Today , unfortunately for our community , the purpose of education has come down to this that bagging through it some good and lucrative service substantial livelihood may be earned . As though the very intent and denotation of education has been altogether changed , and now , instead of " knowledge for the sake of knowledge " , it too has become a means like many other means of earning livelihood , although it is a natural demand of the dignity of knowledge that its ideal be sublime . No doubt www Allowie wwww the profane arts and sciences are acquired so that worldly progress may be achieved through them , but if this ideal is restrained only to one's own personal gain and one's own advantage is kept in view , this sheer selfishners W To selfishness . To expend the invaluable wealth of knowledge for only one's Unca own ends is not to recognise the greatness of knowledge . The purpose of acquiring secular arts and sciences should also be this that through them the resources of the whole community ( or natic.n ) may be developed and they may become the cause of not only one's own rise and progress but also for the advancement of the country and the community . The aim and ideal cherished by the studerts of Arabic schools in acquiring knowledge is to seek Allah's pleasure and to serve His creatures in the best possible manner . The pupils consider their teachers to be teachers and fully observe the old limits and ranks of teachership and pupillage . They pay the same respect to their teachers which they pay to their parents ; every student considers service to teachers conducive to increase in knowledge and prosperity !! The following golden incident of the Islamic history is worth remem bering that when Madrasa - e Nizamia was established in Baghdad , and high salaries and stipends were fixed for the teachers and the taught and all sorts of equipments for comfort were provided by the government , the ulema of Bukhara held on this occasion an assembly of mourning for " the decline of knowledge " and expressed sorrow over it that now knowledge would be acquired not for the sake of knowledge but for status and wealth . It is obvious that if this noble purpose of knowledge is not there before a man , why would he , instead of the contemporary ( modern ) sciences , set his face towards the Dar al - Ulum the value of the degree ( sanad ) of which , in the sight of the government , is not more than that of an old almanac ? Once a lieutenant - governor of the United Provinces ( U.P. ) , Sir James Muston , while inspecting the Dar al - Ulum , had asked a student from a place far off from Deoband - " What is the purpose of your coming here from such a distant place " ? Spontaneously the student replied - " I have come to read here for this that after returning i may renderi religious service to the people of my native place " . It can be estimated from the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum that it is far higher than the standard of the government examinations of " Maulavi Fazil " etc. of " the Oriental Languages " . On this account , had the Dar al - Ulum so wished , it could have easily got its sanad recognised by the government equivalent to that of " Maulavi Fazil " but instead of making its sanad a " passport " to service in the government departments , it considered it more apposite that it should try to create in its students such academic ability and merit that the moment the people see its alumnus and its sanad they may believe that it is a thing of value and that whichever task of reli gion this man takes upon himself , he will be able to discharge it with competence and elegance . Special attention has been paid to this thing in the curriculum of the Dar al - Ulum that through it the student , along with the preservation of the spiritual and moral values of Islam , may also acquire ability and expertise in the Islamic arts and sciences so that after going out from here he may be enabled to bear the responsibilities of sincere leadership of the community and may play an important role in the effort for the Islamic call and preaching . It is tried in the Dar al - Ulum to convince students that the purpose of their education is not at all the acquirement of degree or pre paration for government services and offices . On the contrary , it is a purely religious education , and the political and geographical conditions of India demand that such a party that may always be actively busy in elevating the Word of Allah and the revival of the Sunnah should be present amongst the muslims . Thank Allah that the Dar al - Ulum is successful in this educa tional purpose from this institution have come out thousands of such ulema , preachers , authors and leaders who have never avoided this purpose of the Dar al - Ulum . The prophetic Hadith is a commentary and exegesis of the Book of Allah and the second most important source of the Islamic law . The Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , has rendered service to many religious and secular sciences but the teaching of Hadith has been the most conspicuous among them all . The teaching of Hadith in the Dar al - Ulum has been comprehensive in tradition ( riwayat ) and reasoning ( darayat ) and all the CARSON principles of the Islamic law . Here it is tried that the commentary of the men such details of topics related to it may come before the $ 14 Wat DX students that in their future life they may not have to face any difficulty in PERSON the conjunction and reconciliation ( Jama ' wa tatbiq ) and preference and interpretation ( tarjih wa tawil ) of the prophetic hadiths . In this respect the Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , in the teaching of Hadith , commands a singu lar dignity . This is the reason that the Dar al - Hadith of the Dar al - Ulum is held in high esteem and respect by all the religious schools . hadith and hadith and On account of the extensiveness of its educational system , maturity in conformance to the Sunnah , and consummate firmness in arts and sci ences , the Dar al - Uium , Deoband , enjoys the position of a singular institu tion . In the teaching of Hadith particularly it commands an individual style , which special feature of it makes it distinguished over all other educational institutions . In its Dar al - Hadith gather every year three to four hundred students who flock to it from different parts of the world merely for the study of Hadith . Amongst these students of Hadith there is a large number of such people also who are graduates of other institutions and come here only to benefit from the special higher education of the Dar al - Ulum . The Dar al - Ulum , Deoband , leads all the seminaries of India , Pakistan , Bangla Desh , Burma , Afghanistan and other countries and many madrasahs imitate it in the method of education and internal organisation . The Dar al - Ulum has been religiously kept aloof and independent from state help and government interference . The system of education and train ing that the British government had started in India in its regime not only did not have any compatibility with the Islamic ideal and belief but was also very harmful for the Muslims ; had it been accepted , then our present generation not only would have been deprived of Islam but also , unsurprisinigy , would have renegated from and revolted against Islam . The elders of the Dar al - Ulum sensed this danger in time and , despite political slavery , revivified the old system of education to maintain intellectual liberty in order that the students completing this course of study could . begin the world as a true believer.

টাইম টেবিল[সম্পাদনা]

As it is generally the practice in the Arabic schools , in the Dar al - Ulumi too the time - table is divided into two parts : the first part consists of four . hours and the second of two . In the summer season from 6-00 a.m. to 10-00 a.m. and after the Zuhr prayer , from 3-30 p.m. to 5-30 p.m. , and in the winter season , from 8-00 a.m. to 12-00 noon and after Zuhr prayer , from 2-00 p.m. to 4-00 p.m. Each period in the Dar al - Ulum is of full sixty minutes . With change in season the hours of periods also change gradually , i.e. , from 6-00 to 6-15 and from 2-00 to 2-15 ; similarly , from 8-00 to 7-45 and from 3-30 to 3-15 . Usually , after admission in the month of Shawwal , lessons begin in the beginning of the month of Zi - q'ada and continue till the end of Rajab . The annual examination is held in the month of Sha'ban and continues for nearly three weeks . The annual vacation begins from the last week of Sha'ban and continues up to the first week of Shawwal . Admissions begin . from the second week . Friday is the weekly holiday.

ভর্তির নিয়ম[সম্পাদনা]

The portal of the Dar al - Ulum Deoband is open for every student who wants to acquire knowledge of the religious sciences , provided he agrees with the objectives and the educational ideal of the Dar al - Ulum and applies for admission with the firm resolve of abiding by the rules and regulations of the Dar al - Uium and provided his lifestyle be in consonance with the Islamic values . With these conditions he can be admitted to that class for which he may have ability and capacity . Admission generally begins from the second week of Shawwal and ends by the end of the third week , but the admission of fresh students is closed a little earlier . At the time of admission a fresh student is admittted to a class for which he is considered fit by virtue of his ability ; admission cannot be given on the basis of the sanad of any other educational institution . How ever those students who pass the Persian classes and join the Arabic class are exempted from the test for admission . Admission in the Quran class and Persian class is done through appli cation and in the Arabic class through a printed application - form . There are two kinds of the admission - form : old and new . By old are meant those students who may have studied in the Dar al - Ulum itself in the previ ous year and the newly - arrived students are called " new " ( ie , fresh ). By filling the admission - form the student makes a promise that he shall keep himself engaged in studies with eagerness and singleness of purpose , and shall fully abide by the rules - in - force of the Dar al - Ulum , and in his personal appearance , deportment and etiquette , and reading and writing , etc. shall follow the student - like demeanour and lifestyle There is no restriction of age - limit for admission , however , young children from outside who cannot stay alone in the hostel are not admitted . There is also no such restriction on account of any profession wherefore the doors of teaching and learning may be closed upon some individuals or sections of the community ; on the contrary , every man who cherishes any zest for learning can learn and acquire knowledge without any hindrance . The Arabic madrasahs have always been free from the restriction of age - limit and profession , never allowing any discrimination on account of colour and race , riches and poverty , and high and low class . Hence the ways of acquiring the highest possible education with convenience have always remained open to every man belonging to any race , of howsoevermuch small means he may be . In the educational history of the Muslims will be found innumerable such scholars and accomplished men who ancestrally belonged to different high and low professions . Such men who have been ignored in the world on account of their lowly professions acquired education in these Arabic madrasahs and accomplished such wonderful exploits in the academic and political fields that every student of history is aware of them . The cre dit of antecedence and pioneering for the thing that is being considered today a gift of Europe belongs in reality to our Arabic schools.

পরীক্ষা[সম্পাদনা]

It is not easy to say that the system of examination was generally current in the Arabic madrasahs ; nevertheless it appears from the particu lars of some madrasahs that the students were examined in them annually . As such it is stated in the history of Bijapur entitled Bustan al - Salatin , in connection with the chronicles of the seminaries , that " the examination of the students used to be held at the end of the month of Zil - hajja " , An explicit statement about the annual examination in the same book at another place is that " the annual examination was held every year 2 But this system had been abandoned just a short time before the establishment of the Dar al - Ulum , and this system of holding quarterly , six monthly and annual examinations , which is a good means of assessing the student's ability , labour and toil , was not in vogue . When a student finished a book under the instruction of a teacher , a higher book used to be begun without holding a test for the previous book . It is evident that in this there was no opportunity to assess and assay the student's ability , and very often even an undeserving student also used to go on crossing the stages of pro gress Perceiving this defect , the Dar al - Uium put an end to this system . and made the quarterly , half - yearly and annual examinations compulsory . The rules that are in force in the Dar al - Uium in connection with exami nation are also sufficiently stiff . There is no rule of private examination here . Amongst the madrasahs of India most probably it was a speciality of Bijapur only that an annual examination used to be held there , otherwise no mention of annual examination is met with in the history of other religi ous schools ; and this much is absolutely certain that in the immediate past of the establishment of the Dar al - Ulum the custom of annual examination was not at all there in India.

পরীক্ষার নিয়ম[সম্পাদনা]

Examination which is the criterion of assessing the students ' educa tional ability and the teachers ' labour and assiduity and on which promo tion to higher classes depends is a very necessary thing . But even as the Dar al - Ulum has been absolutely kept aloof from the influence of the government , similarly any kind of external interference in the examination . has also not been liked . The curriculum is of its own proposition and examinations too it conducts under its own supervision . The examinations here are of two kinds . Ore is examination for admis sion . It is held for those students who come from some other seminary to be admitted to the Dar al - Ulum . Usually it is held in the month of Shawwal . Special strictness is used in this examination and very often more than half of the candidates taking this examination have to return because of their failure . The other examination is held for studies . This is held thrice in the academic year . The quarter y examination is held in the month of Safar al - Muzaffar , the six - monthly in Jamadi al - Ula and the annual begins in the last week of Rajab and ends in the second ten days . of the month of Sha'ban . Extreme precaution is taken and strictest invigilation is done in the examinations . All the examinations of the first and the second years and of some books of the third year are conducted catechetically , through viva voce ; and of higher classes there is written examination . The question papers are printed with utmost precaution and under extreme secrecy . In the examination four hours are given for answering the paper . Seats are fixed and special care is taken that the candidates may not talk with each other , in case of disobeying this rule the guilty candidates are expelled from the examination . The hypothetical marks of the examination are 50. The detail of secur ing classes in the examination is as under : To be placed in the lowest class a successful candidate must obtain 30 to 36 marks , for the intermediate class 37 to 43 , and for the highest class 44 to 50 . It should be known on this occasion that prior to the Dar al - Ulum all the educational centres that were there in India were by and large of the nature of private institutions and it was a common factor in all of them that there was neither classification in them nor muster - ralls nor were the students compelled to choose a subsidiary book and subject with the principal book and subject . There was absolute freedom , one would read whatever one liked and read as long as one wished . There was no fixed duration for education nor any particular mode of examination . It is the Dar al - Ulum only that takes precedence of all others in executing classification , duration of education , maintenance of muster - roll , holding of examina tions , relevance of subjects and other such matters , and it is from here only that these things gradually became customary in the Arabic schools.

শিক্ষাগত উপবৃত্তি[সম্পাদনা]

Most of the students prosecuting their studies in the Arabic schools are poor and indigent . The financial condition of their guardians is not such that they may afford to spend money for the education and training of their young children and adorn them with education and culture . The history of every progressive nation is a witness to the fact that the secret of its progress lies hidden in the edcuation of its masses and this is not possible unless there is an arrangement for free education . Accord ingly , after an experience of hundreds of years the greatest educationists of the twentieth century have at last arrived at the conclusion that the education of the masses ought to be free , and as long as this method is not adopted , it is difficult for education to become universal . The greatest drawback of modern education is this that it has become a preserve of those people only who can afford their expenses , as if there is no place for the poor in the acquisition of the modern education . But in our old system of education educational expenses have been made the liability of the educational institutions rather than of the students . In this system of education no fees are charged for education . And not only this , text - books are provided gratis for the students , rather , the indigent and poor students are given even cash stipends by the institu tions for food , clothes and other necessities . In the Dar al - Ulum this matter has been paid special attention to ab initio that the burden of meeting the expenses of the boarding and lodging , clothing , medical treatment and other inevitable needs should be borne by the Dar al - Ulum rather than by the students , save those who may afford to be self - sufficient . But in the issuing of stipends due regard to it is inescapable that dis inclination in matters educational and the eleemosyrary or parasitic habit may not develop in the students , and that they remain all absorbed in educational works . Hence all the stipends are issued for one year only , to be renewed next year . Whenever the student fails in the examination , the stipend is stopped and is not reissued as long as he does not obtain , in accordance with the rule of the issue of stipend , success in the examina tion in the medium class . However , accommodation for stay in the hostel and text - books from the library for the relevant year are given temporarily without charge to every student , deserving or undeserving . The following conditions are necessary for obtaining a stipend - ( A ) The student may have studied books like Al - Nahv al - Wazeh , Sharh - e Tehzib , etc. ( which are being taught in the second year ) . ( B ) He may have obtained out of 50 at least 37 marks , which is the medium class of success . ( C ) He may be asking for aid because of poverty . The stipend is of two kinds : food - and - cash . For the provision of food there is the Kitchen , from which each student , at each meal , is given two tandoori ( i.e. , Tannuri ; a kind of bread which is baked inside the oven ) breads the ( ary ) flour of which weighs 250 grams . Dal dish is given at lunch - time and meat - dish in the evening ' . Besides meals , cash stipends are also given in different quantities , upto fifty rupees per month. In the terminology of the Dar al - Ulum , both these kinds of stipends are called " imdad " ( " aid " ) . Those students whom " aid " is issued , are also given four pairs of clothes , two pairs of shoes in one year and a quilt also in the winter season . A monthly stipend is fixed for lighting in the rooms and for the washing of clothes . Physicians are appointed for the treatment of sick students . Medicines are provided gratis to the students and they are also supplied regimen ( medically prescribed diet ) . Besides these matters , arrangement of light in the passages of the Dar al - Ulum , water - taps in the hostels , and tepid water in the mosque of the Dar al - Ulum in the winter season , is done necessarily . All the students admitted in the Dar al - Ulum are given text - books on loan from the library for one year without charge . Whether or not a student gets financial aid , he is not charged rent for the hostel - room.

পুরস্কার বিতরণ[সম্পাদনা]

In order to induce and tempt students to educational activities and create a competitive spirit among them , students are considered worthy of getting prizes on their success in the annual examination . A student securing the highest number of marks is awarded a special prize . Textual and non textual books are given as prize , in accordance with the student's ability . Like some other things , the custom of prize - distribution has also been there in the Dar al - Ulum from the very beginning . In the function that is held every year under the name of prize - distribution , besides the local residents , people from outside are also invited to participate . The purpose of this gathering is that the Muslims in general and the contributors in particular may estimate the educational results of that adolescent genera tion they had entrusted to the Dar al - Ulum ; as also this that they may see with their own eyes the scene of the utility of that money the community has donated to the Dar al - Ulum.

প্রশংসাপত্র, সনদ (ডিগ্রী) এবং পাগড়ি[সম্পাদনা]

The students who , after completing the course of the Dar al - Ulum , obtain success in the annual examinations are awarded sanads on their graduation . The title of each studied book is necessarily mentioned in the sanad but the book in the examination of which the candidate may have obtained less than 30 marks is not entered in the sanad . There are separate sanads for the class of Persian , the class of cantilla tion and the department of Tibb . The students who drop out in the middle , before completing the entire course , are also given testimonial for the books the examination of which they may have passed . The sanad of " A'lim " is given to one who passes the fourth class and that of " Fazil " to one who completes the course of the eighth class . Besides the names of books the examination which the candidate has already taken and passed , his academic and intellectual capacity and good ability are also mentioned in the sanad ; and it is also testified that he has studied in the Dar al - Ulum , is skilled in arts and sciences , and has had the right to teach and issue fetwas . Over and above this , opinion is also expressed regarding his morals and behaviour . The sanad is a printed one , and is adorned with the signatures of the vice - chancellor and the teachers and the seal of the Dar al - Ulum . Besides the usual award of a sanad according to the practice of the old institutions , a turban is also wrapped , in a public function and at the hands of their own teachers , around the head of those students who may have achieved distinctive qualifications in arts and sciences . In the Arabic schools the technical term for this turban is " turban of proficiency".

ইংরেজী শিক্ষা পরিহার[সম্পাদনা]

This blame has gained notoriety against the ulema of India , particularly against the ulema of Deoband , that , by issuing a fetwa against the acquirement of the English education , they prevented the Muslims from acquiring it , wherefore the Muslims lagged behind other communities in in the field of worldly progress . But this blame is baseless , because the ulema were against only that curriculum which might lead the Muslims towards atheism and irreligion . This danger was being felt in Aligarh itself . Accordingly , to obviate it , an independent Department of Theology was established there , and when Maulana Muhammad Qasim's son - in - law , Maulana Abd Allah Ansari , was invited to head it , the Dar al - Ulumi promptly accepted this invitation . Maulana Abd Allah Ansari graced this post till the end of his life and after him , his son , Maulana Ahmed Mian . Ansari , was appointed on this post . He was also a graduate of the Dar al Ulum . It is , therefore , obvious that in case of opposition to the English system of education , this thing was not possible . As regards those students who , after graduating from the Arabic schools , wished to enter government schools , Hazrat Maulana Nanautavi , in his speech delivered in a function of prize - distribution held in 1990/1873 , had encouraged such students in the following words - " If the students of this madrasah join government schools to acquire the modern sciences , this acquirement would more shore up their accomplishment " . Replying to the objection of certain people as to why modern sciences were not included in the syllabus of the Dar al - Ulum , he said " If this thought is a stumbling block that there is no arrangement here at all for the profane sciences , its answer firstly is that there ought to be treatment of the disease . To take medicine for a disease which is not there is futile . The crack in the wall should be filled up ; it is necessary to fill the kiln . What is it but silliness to be anxious about the brick that has not yet fallen down ? What are the government schools for ? If the profane sciences are not taught there , what else is done there ? Had these schools been less in number than what are required , then it would not have mattered . But it is common knowledge that through the government's attention , towns and cities apart , schools have been opened even in villages . To make arrangement for the schools of secular sciences in their presence and be negligent towards . the religious sciences is not the work of the longsighted wisdom " 2 , In fact our ancestors did not feel any hesitation in adopting the arts and sciences of other nations even at that time when the flag of their greatness and power was flying over half the world . The Muslims in the past had not only adopted the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato and other Greek philosophers but had also become masters of the medical treasures of Hippocrates and Galen . Researches on Euclid and Ptolemy had become an intersting pastime of their lives . The Indian Arithmetic too had been cast in the Arabic mould . In this very way foundations were laid in the Arabic language of a new literature , history , philosophy and knowledge , medicine , arithmetic , astronomy , astrology , chemistry , physics and other arts and sciences , which are a proud wealth of culture and civilisation of the world today . The Muslims adopted these sciences in such a way that instead of being felt strange they look Islamic sciences . In the acquirement of arts and sciences Muslims have always been very large - minded . Every student of history knows that the Muslims have not only learnt the arts and sciences of Greece and India but have also developed and enlarged them ' . It is an atrocious misunderstanding in respect of the ulema , English education was never called impermissible and illegitimate . The ulema were opposed rather to that culture only which was correlated with the English education and which alone was being considered the singular means of advancement . It will be apposite here to see by pondering over this blame in the light of historical facts what its reality is . Exactly at the time which coincided with the beginning of the late Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan's educa tional movement , a matchless divine of the time , Maulana Abd al - Hayy Lakhnavi , who belonged to the old educational centre of Hanafite jurispru dence at Farangimahal , Lucknow , had issued the following fetwa regarding the English education - " To study the English language or learn to write English is prohibited if it be for the sake of resemblance , but if the purpose be this that we may be able to read letters written in English or know the contents of their books , then it matters little . It says in the Mishkat Sharif that the Holy Prophet ( Allah's peace and blessings be upon him ! ) ordered Hazrat Zaid bin Thabith to learn the Jews ' script ( Hebrew ) and he learnt it in a few days " 2 . In Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi's Fatawa , in reply to a query regarding the learning and teaching of the English language , is written " It is correct to learn the English language , provided one does not commit a sin and there may be no impairment in religion 3 . In the early period of the East India Company Hazrat Shah Abd al Aziz Dehe vi's fetwa too was to the same effect that " to learn the English language is permissible " . In short the respected ulema never opposed the English language in itself at any time . On the contrary , for the earning . of livelihood and the acquirement of knowledge and information they explicitly issued a fetwa of its legitimacy , even as it is clearly evident from Hazrat Zaid bin Thabith's example in the prophetic era . However that form alone was declared impremissible through which , due to diffe rent reasons , the student's belief and faith were affected and which became the means of adopting un - Islamic culture , un - Islamic morals and anti - Islamic beliefs. The reality in fact is this that there were serveral reasons for the Muslims ' aviodance of the English language . The foremost reason was this that , on the one hand , there was intense bitterness in the Muslims ' hearts against the aggressive English who had deprived them of rulership and empire ; they ( the Muslims ) used to look at every thing of the English with aversion . The presence of inimical sentiments in the Muslims ' hearts regarding the Englishmen's culture , civilisation and sciences was but natural . The Muslims had seen the lamp of the Mughal empire snuffed out before their own eyes , they had seen with their own eyes the spectalce of the royal family writhing in dust and blood ; they had seen thousands of Muslims being put to the sword on very ordinary , flimsy suspicions . Thousands of Muslim families had been reduced to utter poverty ( lit , were Dow starving for want of even stale bread ) ; and thousands of respectable families were wandering about aimlessly in a state of utter destitution and ammess helplessness . They had seen the plunder and devastation of all those the which thay things which they considered the ultimate product of morality canone baigia all thore ultimate of and human and human and their di w had culture and without which their life had become prosaic , and their glory That and honour had gone . They could not at all bear to give English education to their young children nor to have anything to do with the English . In that period the grave consequences of the mutiny and its reaction could not be psychologically overlooked . The struggle between Islam and Christianity that had been going on for centuries in Europe and the Middle East had now , according to their thinking , reached India also . Hence this thing had become indelible in the Muslims ' heart and mind that to tolerate Chris tianity and the Christian state would be detrimental to Islam and the Muslims So they decided to completely boycott this new culture and civilisation and began to consider everything that was related to the English a portent of danger for Islam and the Muslims . It is evident that this kind of their thinking was a natural reaction of the circumstances , and for which they should be considered excusable . On the other hand , the English too considered the Muslims their real political rival . Although in the war of independenc . of 1857 the individu als of both the Hindu and the Muslim communities had participated and both the communities , as per their capacity , had taken part in this war , in the eyes of the English the Musalman alone was their real opponent . Hence the English , after gaining control , and considering him to be the real rebel , made him more and more a target of their oppression and grinding tyranny . The policy of depriving Musiims of every high place in the country and easy circumstances was adopted . The idea of the English was to make the Muslims educationally low and useless so that the vision of sovereignty and exaltation might get out of their heads . This wound had been inflicted so deep that it was not going to be healed in a few days . At the same time the padres in India were not only allowed to preach Christianity but had also had the backing of the officials . The teachers in the schools and colleges used to be largely padres , and lessons of the Bible were compulsory The ulema alone were not opposed to this thing but even the commonest Muslim , under such circumstances , was not prepared to send his children to the schools . Maulana Fazi Haq Khairabadi who had been sentenced for life and transported to Andaman - Nicobar Islands for the guilt of issuing a fetwa of jihad of 1857 , writes . " The English prepared a scheme to christianize all the Indian inhabi tants . It was their belief that the Indians would not be able to find any helper and cooperator , and , therefore , save submit and obey , they would not have the nerve to defy them . The English had thoroughly realised that the rulers variance from the ruled on the basis of religion would be a great stumbling block in the way of domination and possession . Hence they began to indulge in all sorts of wiles and chicanery with complete diligence and assiduity , in their wilful attempt to obliterate religion and the sense of nationhood . To teach small children and the ignorant and to inculcate their language and religion , they established schools in towns and villages and made an all out effort to wipe out the old sciences and academic attainments. Formerly the government used to be an institution , mainly concerned with administration of the country , army , police , revenue and finances . Most of the walks of life were out of its circle of activity and gamut . The people of the country used to be free in their educational system , culture and civilisation , morals and social life , as a result of which it was not necessary that with the change of sovereignty change might come in education and culture also . But the frame of the British system of govern ment was different from this ; its circle of operation circumscribed the whole life of the country and the nation and its jurisdiction covered all the walks of life . English culture and English education had become correlative and these alone were considered the means of advancement and civility . The ulema were against this thing only .. In the Muslims ' avoidance of the modern education there was indeed some interference of the will and intention of English politics so that the Muslims might not remain able to rule , and , secondly , the Muslims themselves , for fear of irreligion , hesitated in admitting their children to schools . These were the causes that obstructed the Muslims going to schools and colleges . Accordingly , when the padres activities cooled down due to their own continuous failures and the teaching of the Bible was excluded from the school course , and at the same time , as time passed on , the Muslims ' aversion against the English and English education gradually naturally subsided in the Muslims ' hearts , they began to incline towards English education . This is the reality of that blame which kept the Muslims away from the English education . In fact aversion to English education was the result of the Muslims ' national sense of honour and psychological reaction , and the ulema too were included among them. However the ulema recog nised the spirit of the age and with full insight and foresight never avoided issuing fetwa for the legitimacy of taking English education.

আরও দেখুন[সম্পাদনা]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

পাদটীকা[সম্পাদনা]

  1. This is an educational aspect of this problem but , besides this , there is a linguistic aspect to it also , and it is this that by being the medium of instruction at the Dar al - Ulum the Urdu language itself has achieved a great advantage , which the circles engaged in developing and propagating Urdu have not so far chanced to notice . Nevertheless , the results and gains of this cannot be denied . That great advantage is this that since the Dar al - Ulum is a central educational institution of the Muslims in the Islamic world , students flock to not only from the different linguistic states of India but also from various foreign countries for acquiring education ; and they learn the Urdu language sufficiently well during their stay here . Accordingly , it is an event of a few years ago that a gentleman who had made a tour of various foreign countries had happened to visit the Dar al - Ulum . His statement was that " when I reached Bukhara , which is a famous place in Central Asia , I ran there across a man , who , considering me to be an Indian , spoke to me in a sympathetic tone in Urdu . I wondered very much how he , being so far away from India , must have learnt such chaste Urdu ? On my asking him , he told me : ' This is due to the educational grace of the Dar al - Ulum ( Deoband ) , and not only I but also the entire educational circle here generally understands and speaks Urdu ' . Despite my being a Hindu , that man , with great affability and love , lodged me as his guest and threw in my honour a grand welcome - party , a peculiarity of which will never forget that because of my sake who ever delivered a speech in it , spoke in Urdu only " . In short , the Dar al - Ulum , in this manner , through its students , has widened the circle of Urdu to almost all the Asiatic countries . A similar incident had happened with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru during his visit to Russia . The address presented to Pandit Nehru at the Tashkent aerodrome by the citizens was in Urdu and was read out by an Uzbek Pandit Nehru also replied the address in Urdu which , as the newspaper reported , the audience understood , applauding several times with clapping during the course of the reply . Al - Jami'at Daily , June 18 , 1955. For details , vide Prof. Humayun Kabir Dar al - Ulum Deoband Men by Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi . Besides this there are more than sixty book - depots in Deoband which keep publish ing religious books in Urdu day in and day out.
  2. In this connection the city of Denver in the U. S. A. has achieved great fame . It is said that adult education in Europe and America has begun from this school , which had been . founded in 1916.

উদ্ধৃতি[সম্পাদনা]

  1. আরশাদ ফারুকী, মুফতি (২৭ জুন ২০২০)। "সমকালীন চাহিদা ও কওমি মাদরাসার আধুনিকায়ন"দৈনিক নয়া দিগন্ত 
  2. মাতুব্বর, আবদুছ ছবুর (১৯ অক্টোবর ২০১৯)। "বাংলাদেশের মাদরাসাশিক্ষা অতীত বর্তমান ভবিষ্যত"দৈনিক সংগ্রাম 
  3. মুহাম্মাদ, রকিব (১৬ জানুয়ারি ২০১৮)। "দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দ-এর শিক্ষাকাঠামো ও সিলেবাস"আওয়ারইসলাম২৪.কম 
  4. Wani, Bilal Ahmad (২০১৪)। Contribution of Darul 'Ulum Deoband to the Development of Tafsir (1. Aufl সংস্করণ)। Saarbrücken। পৃষ্ঠা ১৭–২৭। আইএসবিএন 978-3-659-56556-4ওসিএলসি 892098479 
  5. রিজভী, সৈয়দ মেহবুব (১৯৮১)। History of Darul Uloom Deoband [দারুল উলুম দেওবন্দের ইতিহাস]। । এফ. কুরাইশি, মুরতাজ হুসাইন কর্তৃক অনূদিত। দেওবন্দ: ইদারায়ে এহতেমাম। পৃষ্ঠা ১৯৬–২৩৫। ওসিএলসি 20222197 
  6. জামিল, ইফতেখার (২১ আগস্ট ২০২০)। "দরসে নেজামী : উপমহাদেশে ধর্মীয় শিক্ষার সিলসিলা"ফাতেহ২৪.কম