চতুরার্য সত্য

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে

চতুরার্য সত্য
সংস্কৃত: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि
বর্মী: သစ္စာလေးပါး
(আইপিএ: [θɪʔsà lé bá])
চীনা: 四聖諦(T) / 四圣谛(S)
(pinyinsìshèngdì)
জাপানী: 四諦
(rōmaji: shitai)
কোরীয়: 사성제
মঙ্গোলীয়: Хутагт дөрвөн үнэн
সিংহলি: චතුරාර්ය සත්‍ය
তিব্বতী: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་
(ওয়াইলি: 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi
THL: pakpé denpa shyi
)
থাই: อริยสัจสี่
ভিয়েতনামী: Tứ Diệu Đế
Glossary of Buddhism

চতুরার্য সত্য (সংস্কৃত:चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि) গৌতম বুদ্ধ দ্বারা প্রচারিত চারটি শ্রেষ্ঠ সত্য এবং তাঁর প্রধান জ্ঞান দর্শন। এই চারটি সত্য[n ১] হল দুঃখ, দুঃখ সমুদয়, দুঃখ নিরোধদুঃখ নিরোধ মার্গ

তত্ত্ব[সম্পাদনা]

চতুরার্য সত্য তত্ত্বে দুঃখ সম্বন্ধে আলোচনা করা হয়েছে। এই চারটি সত্য হল দুঃখ, দুঃখ সমুদয়, দুঃখ নিরোধদুঃখ নিরোধ মার্গ

দুঃখ[সম্পাদনা]

চতুরার্য সত্যের প্রথম সত্য হল দুঃখগৌতম বুদ্ধের মতে পঞ্চ উপাদান যখন ব্যক্তির তৃষ্ণার বিষয় হয়ে তাঁর নিকটে প্রকট হয়, তখন তাকে উপাদান স্কন্ধ বলে। এই পঞ্চ উপাদান স্কন্ধকে তিনি দুঃখ বলেছেন। এই পঞ্চ উপাদান হল রূপ, বেদনা, সংজ্ঞা, সংস্কার ও বিজ্ঞান। ক্ষিতি, অপ্, তেজ, মরুৎ এই চার মহা উপাদান হল রূপ উপাদান। বস্তু ও তার বিচার সম্বন্ধে অনুভব হল বেদনা উপাদান। বেদনার পর যে পূর্ব সংস্কার দ্বারা ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুকে চেনা যায় তা হল সংজ্ঞা উপাদান। রূপ, বেদনা ও সংজ্ঞা দ্বারা চিন্তায় প্রকৃত ব্যক্তি ও বস্তুকে চিনতে সাহায্য করে সংস্কার উপাদান এবং চেতনা বা মনকে বলে বিজ্ঞান। [৬]

দুঃখকে মূলতঃ তিনভাগে বিভক্ত করা যায়। যথা:

  • দুঃখ দুঃখ - জন্ম, জরা, ব্যাধি এবং মৃত্যুর সঙ্গে সম্পর্কিত দৈহিক ও মানসক কষ্ট,
  • বিপরিণাম দুঃখ - পরিবর্তনশীল বিষয়কে স্থির রাখার দুশ্চিন্তা,
  • সংস্কার দুঃখ - মানসিক চাহিদা পরিপূরণের অভাববোধ।

বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে দুঃখ জীবনের নিরাশাবাদী তত্ত্বকে দর্শায় না, বরং মানবজাতির প্রতিটি সদস্যকে জীবনের কোন না কোন মুহুর্তে জরা, ব্যাধি এবং মৃত্যুর যন্ত্রণার অভিজ্ঞতার মধ্যে দিয়ে যেতে হবেই, মানব অবস্থার এই প্রায়োগিক ও বাস্তব পরীক্ষাকে নির্দেশ করে।[৭] গৌতম বুদ্ধের মতে জীবনে সুখ ও দুঃখ দুই অবস্থান করে, কিন্তু তা সদা পরিবর্তনশীল। সুখ ও দুঃখ কোনটিই বেশিদিন স্থায়ী নয়। সেই কারণে পরিবর্তনশীল সমাজে চাহিদার পূরণ সম্ভব হয় না।[৭][৮][৯][১০][n ২]

দুঃখ সমুদয়[সম্পাদনা]

চতুরার্য সত্যের দ্বিতীয় সত্য হল দুঃখ সমুদয় বা দুঃখের কারণ। গৌতম বুদ্ধ দুঃখের হেতু বা কারণ হিসেবে তৃষ্ণা বা আসক্তিকে উল্লেখ করেছেন।[৬] অবিদ্যার কারণে বিশ্বের সকল প্রকারের ইন্দ্রিয়প্রিয় বস্তু বা বিষয়ের ওপর চিন্তা ও সম্বন্ধ স্থাপনে তৃষ্ণার জন্ম দেয়।[১১][web ১][n ৩] এই তৃষ্ণা তিন প্রকার:[১১][১২][১৩]

  • সম্ভোগতৃষ্ণা : যে বস্তু পার্থিব আনন্দ প্রদান করে, তার ওপর তৃষ্ণা
  • ভবতৃষ্ণা : পার্থিব সম্মান ও প্রভাব বিস্তারের ওপর তৃষ্ণা [১৪]
  • বৈভবতৃষ্ণা : দুঃখ কষ্টের প্রতি বিতৃষ্ণা

চতুরার্য সত্যের অর্থ ও তাত্পর্য্যকে না জানা ও নিজেকে ও বাস্তবকে না বোঝাকে অবিদ্যা বলা হয়ে থাকে। [১৫] অবিদ্যার কারণে ক্লেশের উদ্ভব হয়ে থাকে। [n ৪] এই সূত্রে দুঃখের মূল কারণ রূপে ত্রিবিষের উল্লেখ করা যায়।[১৬][১৭] এই তিনটি বিষ হল- অবিদ্যা বা মোহ, রাগ এবং দ্বেষ

দুঃখ নিরোধ[সম্পাদনা]

গৌতম বুদ্ধের সকল দর্শনের কেন্দ্রবিন্দু।[১৮] তৃষ্ণাকে দৃঢ় ভাবে সংযত করে ও ক্রমশ পরিত্যাগ করে বিনাশ করাকে গৌতম বুদ্ধ দুঃখ নিরোধ বলেছেন। প্রিয় বিষয়ে তত্ত্ব নির্ণয়ে সংশয় থেকে যখন তৃষ্ণা বিমুখ হয়, তখন তৃষ্ণা নাশ সম্ভব এবং তার ফলে বিষয় সংগ্রহের প্রবণতা নষ্ট হয়।[n ৫]উপাদানের নিরোধে ভবলোকের নিরোধ হয়। ফলে বার্ধক্য, মৃত্যু, শোক, ক্রন্দন, ক্লেশ ও জটিলতা দূরীভূত হয়ে দুঃখের নিরোধ হয়।[১৯][৬]

দুঃখ নিরোধ মার্গ[সম্পাদনা]

যেখানে চতুরার্য সত্যের প্রথম তিনটি সত্য দুঃখের বৈশিষ্ট্য ও কারণকে বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়, সেখানে এর চতুর্থ সত্য দুঃখ নিবারণের ব্যবহারিক উপায় দর্শায়।[২০] গৌতম বুদ্ধ দ্বারা বর্ণিত দুঃখ-নিরোধ মার্গ বা দুঃখ নিরসনের উপায়কে অষ্টাঙ্গিক মার্গ বলা হয়।[২১] এর আটটি উপদেশকে সম্যক প্রজ্ঞা, সম্যক শীল ও সম্যক সমাধি এই তিন ভাগে ভাগ করা হয়েছে। সম্যক প্রজ্ঞা দুই প্রকার- সম্যক দৃষ্টি ও সম্যক সঙ্কল্প। কায়িক, বাচনিক ও মানসিক কর্মের সঠিক জ্ঞানকে সম্যক দৃষ্টি বলে। অহিংসা, চুরি না করা, অব্যভিচার ও সত্যভাষণ হল কায়িক সুকর্ম, নিন্দা না করা, মধুর ভাষণ ও লোভহীনতা হল বাচনিক সুকর্ম এবং মিথ্যা ধারণা না করা ও প্রতিহিংসাপরায়ণ না হওয়া হল মানসিক সুকর্ম। সম্যক শীল তিন প্রকার- সম্যক বাক্য, সম্যক কর্ম ও সম্যক জীবিকা। মিথ্যা কথা, পরনিন্দা, কটুবাক্য ও অতিকথন ত্যাগ করে সত্যভাষণ ও মধুর বচনকে সম্যক বাক্য বলে। অহিংসা, চুরি না করা, অব্যভিচারকে সম্যক কর্ম এবং অসৎ পন্থা ত্যাগকে সম্যক জীবিকা বলে। গৌতম বুদ্ধ অস্ত্র ব্যবসা, প্রাণী ব্যবসা, মাংস বিক্রয় এবং মদ ও বিষের বানিজ্যকে মিথ্যা জীবিকা বলে উল্লেখ করেছেন। সম্যক সমাধি তিন প্রকার- সম্যক প্রযত্ন, সম্যক স্মৃতি ও সম্যক সমাধি। ব্যায়াম, ইন্দ্রিয় সংযম, কুচিন্তা ত্যাগ এবং সৎ চিন্তার চেষ্টা ও তাকে স্থায়ী করার চেষ্টাকে সম্যক প্রযত্ন বলে। কায়া, বেদনা, চিত্ত ও মনের ধর্মের সঠিক স্থিতিসমূহ ও তাদের ক্ষণবিধ্বংসী চরিত্রকে সদা স্মরণে রাখাকে সম্যক স্মৃতি এবং চিত্তের একাগ্রতাকে সম্যক সমাধি বলে।[৬] এই আটটি মার্গ একত্রে দুঃখের অবসান ঘটায়। [২২][web ১] এই মার্গগুলি আটটি বিভিন্ন দশা নয়, বরং একে অপরের ওপর নির্ভরশীল পরস্পর সংযুক্ত হয়ে একটি সম্পূর্ণ পথের সৃষ্টি করে। [২৩]

বারো অন্তর্দৃষ্টি[সম্পাদনা]

বুদ্ধের প্রথম বার্তা, দ্বিতীয় শতাব্দী (কুষাণ যুগ) [web ৪]

ধর্মচক্র প্রবর্তন সূত্র অনুসারে চতুরার্য সত্যকে ঠিক মতো বুঝতে প্রতিটি সত্যের জন্য তিনটি করে ধাপে মোট বারোটি অন্তর্দৃষ্টি প্রয়োজন। থেরবাদ বৌদ্দধর্মে এই তিনটি ধাপ সম্বন্ধে বলা হলেও কয়েকজন মহাযান পন্ডিতের রচনাতেও এর উল্লেখ আছে।[২৪] এই তিনটি ধাপ হল:[n ৬]

  1. সচ্চ নান - সত্য সম্বন্ধে জানা
  2. 'কিচ্চ নান - সত্য সম্বন্ধে কি করতে হবে তা জানা
  3. কত নান - যা করতে হবে তা সম্পন্ন করা
প্রথম সত্যের তিনটি অন্তর্দৃষ্টি
  1. দুঃখ আছে[n ৭]
  2. দুঃখকে উপলব্ধি করতে হবে[n ৮]
  3. দুঃখকে উপলব্ধি করা হল [n ৯]
দ্বিতীয় সত্যের তিনটি অন্তর্দৃষ্টি[৩০][৩১]
  1. দুঃখের কারণ আছে যা তৃষ্ণার সাথে সম্পর্কযুক্ত [n ১০]
  2. তৃষ্ণাকে দূর করতে হবে [n ১১]
  3. তৃষ্ণাকে দূর করা হল[n ১২]
তৃতীয় সত্যের তিনটি অন্তর্দৃষ্টি
  1. দুঃখের নিবৃত্তি আছে[n ১৩]
  2. দুঃখের নিবৃত্তি হয় তা উপলব্ধি করতে হবে[n ১৪]
  3. দুঃখের নিবৃত্তি হয় তা উপলব্ধি করা হল[n ১৫]
চতুর্থ সত্যের তিনটি অন্তর্দৃষ্টি
  1. দুঃখ নিবৃত্তির উপায় আছে[n ১৬]
  2. দুঃখ নিবৃত্তির উপায় জানতে হবে [n ১৭]
  3. দুঃখ নিবৃত্তির উপায় উপলব্ধি করা হল[n ১৮]

বুদ্ধের দর্শন[সম্পাদনা]

চতুরার্য সত্যকে বুদ্ধের প্রধান শিক্ষা বলে ধরা হয়। এই শিক্ষা সমস্ত বৌদ্ধ চিন্তাধারার মূল কাঠামো ও মিলনক্ষেত্ররূপে বিবেচিত হয়।[n ১৯][n ২০] গৌতম বুদ্ধের মতে, যেভাবে কোন হাতির পদচিহ্নে যে কোন পশুর পদচিহ্ন স্থান পেয়ে যায়, ঠিক তেমন করে এই বুদ্ধের সমস্ত শিক্ষা এই চার সত্যে স্থান পায়।[n ২১] সারা জীবন ধরে গৌতম বুদ্ধ চার সত্যের শিক্ষাকে বারবার পরিবর্ধন করে তাঁর শিষ্যদের শিক্ষা দিয়েছেন। [n ২২] গৌতম বুদ্ধ নিজের জীবনের ব্যক্তিগত অভিজ্ঞতা থেকে চতুরার্য সত্যকে উপলব্ধি করেছিলেন। বৌদ্ধ পন্ডিত রুপার্ট গেথিনথানিসসারো ভিক্ষু এই ধারণার উল্লেখ করেছেন। [n ২৩][n ২৪]

বিভিন্ন সূত্রে উল্লেখ[সম্পাদনা]

গৌতম বুদ্ধ সারা জীবন ধরে চতুরার্য সত্যকে প্রচার করায় বহু বৌদ্ধ সূত্রে এই তত্ত্বের ব্যাখ্যা পাওয়া যায়। ধর্মচক্র প্রবর্তন সূত্র অনুসারে সম্বোধিলাভের পর গৌতম বুদ্ধ সর্বপ্রথম চতুরার্য সত্যের শিক্ষা দান করেন। এই সূত্রে চারটি মূল শ্লোকে চারটি তথ্যকে উপস্থাপিত করা হয়েছে।[n ২৬]অঙ্গুত্তর নিকায় (৩.৬১) গ্রন্থের তিত্থ সুত্ততে বুদ্ধ দ্বিতীয় ও তৃতীয় সত্যের অন্যরকম ব্যাখ্যা দিয়েছেন। এই গ্রন্থানুসারে বারো নিদানের ওপর নির্ভর করে দুঃখের কারণ ও নিরোধ হয়ে থাকে।[n ২৭] এছাড়াও দীঘ নিকায় গ্রন্থের মহাসতিপত্থন সুত্তে[n ২৮], মজ্ঝিম নিকায় গ্রন্থের সম্মদিত্থি সুত্তে[web ১৩] ও মহাহাত্থিপাদোপম সুত্তে,[n ২৯] এবং বুদ্ধের জীবনের অন্তিম পর্যায়ে রচিত মহাপরিনিব্বাণ সুত্তে[n ৩০] চতুরার্য সত্য সম্বন্ধে বিস্তারিত ভাবে ব্যাখ্যা দেওয়া রয়েছে।

পাদটীকা[সম্পাদনা]

  1. বিভিন্ন অনুবাদকেরা চতুরার্য সত্যের বিভিন্নরকম তালিকা দিয়েছেন, যেমন :
    • ভিক্ষু বোধি: "The Four Noble Truths are as follows: 1. The truth of Dukkha; 2. The truth of the origin of Dukkha; 3. The truth of the cessation of Dukkha; 4. The truth of the path, the way to liberation from Dukkha".[web ১]
    • জন বিল্ট: "What are these four? They are the noble truth of dukkha; the noble truth of the origin of dukkha; the noble truth of the cessation of dukkha; and the noble truth of the way to the cessation of dukkha."[web ২]
    • রেওয়াতা ধম্ম: "The Four Noble Truths [...] are: 1. The Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha); 2. The Noble Truth of the origin of suffering (samudaya); 3. The Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha); 4. The Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga)."[১]
    • এনসাইক্লোপিডিয়া অব বুদ্ধিজম: "1. The noble truth that is suffering; 2. The noble truth that is the arising of suffering; 3. The noble truth that is the end of suffering; 4. The noble truth that is the way leading to the end of suffering."[২]
    • গেশে তাশি শেরিং: "The four noble truths are: 1. The noble truth of suffering; 2. The noble truth of the origin of suffering; 3. The noble truth of the cessation of suffering and the origin of suffering; 4. The noble truth of the path that leads to the cessation of suffering and the origin of suffering."[৩]
    • যোসেফ গোল্ডস্টাইন: "The four noble truths are the truth of suffering, its cause, its end, and the path to that end.[৪]
    • মার্ক এপস্টাইন: "[The Buddha] formulated his first teaching as the Four Noble Truths: suffering, its cause, its cessation, and the path to its cessation".[৫]
  2. Normally we think our happiness is contingent upon external circumstances and situations, rather than upon our own inner attitude toward things, or toward life in general. The Buddha was saying that dissatisfaction is part of life, even if we are seeking happiness and even if we manage to find temporary happiness. The very fact that it is temporary means that sooner or later the happiness is going to pass. So the Buddha said that unless we understand this and see how pervasive dissatisfaction or duhkha is, it is impossible for us to start looking for real happiness.[১০]
  3. থেরবাদ বৌদ্ধধর্মে চতুরার্য সত্যের ওপর লিখিত টীকাগুলিতে এই ব্যাখ্যা খুঁজে পাওয়া যায়: উদহারণ Ajahn Sucitta (2010); Ajahn Sumedho (ebook); Rahula (1974); etc.
  4. থেরবাদমহাযান বৌদ্ধধর্মে চতুরার্য সত্যের ওপর লিখিত টীকাগুলিতে এই ব্যাখ্যা খুঁজে পাওয়া যায়: উদহারণ Ringu Tulku (2005), p. 30; Chogyam Trunpa (2010); Thich Nhat Hahn (1999), p. 22.
  5. the cessation of all the unsatisfactory experiences and their causes in such a way that they can no longer occur again. It's the removal, the final absence, the cessation of those things, their non-arising."[web ৩]
  6. ধর্মচক্র প্রবর্তন সূত্র অনুসারে তিনটি ধাপ সম্বন্ধে বিভিন্ন অনুবাদক বলেছেন:
    • ওয়ালপোলা রাহুলা: "[...]with regard to each of the Four Noble Truths there are three aspects of knowledge: 1. The knowledge that it is the Truth (sacca-ñāṇa) 2. The knowledge that a certain function or action with regard to this Truth should be performed (kicca-ñāṇa), and 3. The knowledge that that function or action with regard to this Truth has been performed (kata-ñāṇa)."[২৫]
    • আজান সুচিত্তো: "The Buddha goes on to deepen the significance of the practice of the four noble truths. He begins by analyzing the first noble truth in a pattern of three stages: acknowledgment, motivation, and result—or view, practice, and full understanding. This pattern is then repeated in each of the other noble truths. In each case, the first stage is a fuller reflection on the importance of bearing the meaning of the specific truth in mind; the second stage demonstrates the way of practicing with that truth; the third fully penetrates the significance of that truth. Together, the twelve stages define the process of awakening through the four noble truths."[২৬]
    • আজান সুমেধো: "Now the Four Noble Truths are: there is suffering; there is a cause or origin of suffering; there is a end of suffering; and there is path out of suffering which is the Eightfold Path. Each of these Truths has three aspects so all together there are twelve insights. In the Theravada school, an arahant, a perfected one, is one who has seen clearly the Four Noble Truths with their three aspects and twelve insights."[২৭]
    • ফিলিপ মফিট: "There are three insights associated with each Noble Truth, and they follow a similar pattern: first reflecting, then directly experiencing, and finally knowing."[২৮]
    • গেশে তাশি শেরিং: In the [Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, the Buddha] repeats each noble truth three times, each time with a slightly different emphasis and a slightly different flavor. This repetition represents the three phases of understanding that the Buddha himself acquired in his ever-deepening realization of these four truths. The three phases are as follows: knowing the nature of the truth, knowing what needs to be done in connection with that truth, and finally accomplishing what needs to be done.[২৯]
  7. "We don’t need to make it into anything grand; it is just the recognition: ‘There is suffering’. That is a basic insight. The ignorant person says, ‘I’m suffering. I don’t want to suffer. I meditate and I go on retreats to get out of suffering, but I’m still suffering and I don’t want to suffer.... How can I get out of suffering? What can I do to get rid of it?’ But that is not the First Noble Truth; it is not: ‘I am suffering and I want to end it.’ The insight is, ‘There is suffering’."[২৭]
  8. "The second insight or aspect of each of the Noble Truths has the word ‘should’ in it: ‘It should be understood.’ The second insight then, is that dukkha is something to understand. One should understand dukkha, not just try to get rid of it. [...] in Pali, ‘understanding’ means to really accept the suffering, stand under or embrace it rather than just react to it. With any form of suffering - physical or mental - we usually just react, but with understanding we can really look at suffering; really accept it, really hold it and embrace it. So that is the second aspect, ‘We should understand suffering’."[২৭]
  9. "When you have actually practised with suffering - looking at it, accepting it, knowing it and letting it be the way it is - then there is the third aspect, ‘Suffering has been understood’, or ‘Dukkha has been understood.’ "[২৭]
  10. Ajahn Sumedho emphasizes contemplating the three aspects of tanha: kama-tanha (the desire for sense pleasures); bhava-tanha (the desire to become something, such as seeking wealth or fame); vibhava-tahha (the desire to get rid of things, e.g. to avoid suffering)
  11. "The more we contemplate and investigate grasping, the more the insight arises, 'Desire should be let go of.'"[৩২]
  12. "Then through the actual practice and understanding of what letting go really is, we have the third insight into the Second Noble Truth, which is 'Desire has been let go of.' We actually know letting go. It is not a theoretical letting go, but a direct insight. You know letting go has been accomplished. This is what practice is all about."[৩২]
  13. Ajahn Sumedho emphasizes the importance of reflecting on impermanence, that everything that arises also ceases. He states: "Rather than just thinking about it, really contemplate: 'All that is subject to arising is subject to ceasing.' Apply it to life in general, and to your own experience. Then you will understand. Just note: beginning...ending. Contemplate how things are. This sensory realm is all about arising and ceasing, beginning and ending; there can be perfect understanding in this lifetime.[৩৩]
  14. "To allow this process of cessation to work, we must be willing to suffer. This is why I stress the importance of patience. We have to open our minds to suffering, because it is in embracing suffering that suffering ceases. When we find that we are suffering, physically or mentally, then we go to the actual suffering that is present. We open completely to it, welcome it, concentrate on it, allowing it to be what it is. That means we must be patient and bear with the unpleasantness of a particular condition. We have to endure boredom, despair, doubt and fear in order to understand that they cease rather than running away from them."[৩৪]
  15. "[When craving] has ceased, you experience nirodha — cessation, emptiness, non-attachment. Nirodha is another word for Nibbana. When you have let something go and allowed it to cease, then what is left is peace."[৩৫]
  16. "In the Tenth Insight the Buddha asks you to realize that there is a path to finding freedom from the angst of your life and experiencing more joy. Implicit is the authentic possibility that you have the power to change your inner experience of life, and there is a specific means for you to do so. The realization of this insight evokes in you the faith to undergo the discipline, hard work, and renunciation that are called for in the Eleventh Insight."[৩৬]
  17. "The Noble Eightfold Path is not a set of beliefs or laws but rather a practical, direct experience method for finding meaning and peace in your life. Think of it as an organic blueprint from which you organize and live your life. Each of the eight path factors defines one aspect of behavioral development needed for you to move from suffering to joy. Its eight factors function as an integrated system or matrix that supports and informs all parts of your life. By "cultivating" the Buddha means attending to, nourishing, and manifesting each of these factors of wisdom in your life."[৩৭]
  18. "As you begin working with the twelfth and final of the Buddha's insights, you are nearing the end of your search to know how to live wisely. In your journey you have utilized mindfulness to explore the experiences of your mind and body, which has allowed you to directly know the emotional, psychological, existential, and spiritual dilemmas of daily life. You are no longer deluded-you no longer have the mistaken belief that your mind has to be trapped in stress and reactivity for the rest of your life. You now know that freedom is truly possible, and you "know that you know" effective ways to respond to desire and difficulty when they arise in your life. You know that a path to cessation with its eight factors exists; you know its parts; you know you are capable of practicing it; and you know that it works for you!"[৩৮]
    • "The heart of the Buddha's teaching lies in the Four Noble Truths (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni)..."[৩৯]
    • "The Four Noble Truths are the very foundation of the Buddhist teachings, and that is why they are so important. In fact, if you don't understand the Four Noble Truths, and if you have not experienced the truth of this teaching personally, it is impossible to practice the Buddha Dharma. Therefore I am always happy to have the opportunity to explain them."[৪০]
    • "The fist instruction of the Buddha was the teaching on the Four Noble Truths. These cannot be said to be just "Shravakayana". They are everything. Apart from the Four Noble Truths, there is nothing else in Buddhism. So they are the most important thing."[৪১]
    • "After realizing complete, perfect awakening (samyak sambodhi), the Buddha had to find words to share his insight. He already had the water, but he had to discover jars like the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path to hold it. The Four Noble Truths are the cream of the Buddha's teaching."[৪২]
    • "[The Buddha's] first teaching [...] is called "Setting the Wheel of the Dharma in Motion," and it lays out the Four Noble Truths, the basic doctrine of liberation common to all Buddhist schools."[৪]
    • "The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, the Buddha's teaching on the Four Noble Truths, has been the main reference that I have used for my practice over the years. It is the teaching we used in our monastery in Thailand. The Theravada school of Buddhism regards this sutta as the quintessence of the teachings of the Buddha. This one sutta contains all that is necessary for understanding the Dhamma and for enlightenment."[৪৩]
    • "The four noble truths lay down the blueprint for the entire body of the Buddha’s thought and practice and set up the basic framework of the individual’s path to enlightenment. They encapsulate all of Buddhist philosophy. Therefore studying, meditating, and fully understanding this teaching is very important, because without an understanding of the four noble truths it is impossible to fully integrate the concepts and practices of Buddhism into our daily lives."[৪৪]
    • "The four noble truths encompass the entire spiritual path with all its many aspects..."[৪৫]
    • "The Four Noble Truths are the core of the Buddhist Dharma."[৪৬]
    • "...the Four Noble Truths are the essence of all the Buddha's teachings. Without understanding them, we cannot proceed. All the later interpretations of the original Buddhist teachings are based on the Four Noble Truths."[৪৭]
    • "Everything within the Buddha’s teachings can be encapsulated with I teach one thing and one thing only. That is suffering and the end of suffering. And the normal formulation of that is what is called the Four Noble Truths."[web ৫]
    • "The essence of the Buddha’s teaching can be summed up in two principles: the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. The first covers the side of doctrine, and the primary response it elicits is understanding; the second covers the side of discipline, in the broadest sense of that word, and the primary response it calls for is practice."[৪৮]
    • "In the original Pali texts, specifically in the discourses (suttas), these Four Truths are made clear in detail and in diverse ways. Without a clear idea of the Truths, one cannot know what the Buddha taught for forty-five years. To the Buddha the entire teaching is just the understanding of dukkha, the unsatisfactory nature of all phenomenal existence, and the understanding of the way out of this unsatisfactoriness."[web ৬]
    • "The four noble truths are central to the Buddhist tradition. The Buddha presented these teachings in one of the first sermons he gave after his enlightenment, and they were recorded in the sutra The First Turning of the Wheel of Dharma. [...] In later teachings the Buddha touched on the four noble truths repeatedly, expanding upon and further elucidating his original presentation."[৪৯]
    • "The Buddha repeated over and over again that the four noble truths are the foundation and nucleus of his teachings. All Buddhist wisdom is contained within them like the layers of an onion, each layer more subtle and profound than the previous, leading to a central insight. Monks, Buddha said, by the fact of understanding as they really are, these four truths, a Tathagata is called an Arhat, a fully enlightened one."[৫০]
    • "In [the Buddha's first] sermon, as we have it in the original texts, these four Truths are given briefly. But there are innumerable places in the early Buddhist scriptures where they are explained again and again, with greater detail and in different ways."[৩৯]
    • "The Buddha continued to proclaim these truths right up until his Great Passing Away (mahaparanirvana)."[৪২]
    • "And many would say that [the Buddha's first discourse] was his most important discourse because it established the basis of the teaching that he added to throughout his life—the teaching of "suffering and the cessation of suffering," which he encapsulated in four great or "noble" truths."[৫১]
    • "In a Nikāya passage the Buddha thus states that he has always made known just two things, namely suffering and the cessation of suffering. This statement can be regarded as expressing the basic orientation of Buddhism for all times and all places. Its classic formulation is by way of 'four noble truths'..."[৫২]
    • "...the Four Noble Truths are the central concept of Buddhism. What the Buddha taught during his ministry of forty-five years embraces these Truths, namely: Dukkha, suffering or unsatisfactoriness, its arising, its cessation and the way out of this unsatisfactory state."[web ৭]
    • "The recorded teachings of the Buddha are numerous. But all these diverse teachings fit together into a single unifying frame, the teaching of the Four Noble Truths. The Buddha compared the Four Noble Truths to the footprints of an elephant. Just as the footprint of an elephant can contain the footprints of any other animal, the footprints of tigers, lions, dogs, cats, etc. So all the different teachings of the Buddha fit into the single framework of the Four Noble Truths."[web ১]
    • "The four noble truths are the most basic expression of the Buddha's teaching. As Ven. Sariputta once said, they encompass the entire teaching, just as the footprint of an elephant can encompass the footprints of all other footed beings on earth."[web ৮]
    • "[These truths] are the essence of the Buddha's teaching. ‘As the footprint of every creature that walks the earth can be contained in an elephant's footprint, which is pre-eminent for size, so does the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths embrace all skilful Dhamma (the entire teaching of the Buddha)." [M. 28.][web ৬]
  19. "The heart of the Buddha's teaching lies in the Four Noble Truths (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni) which he expounded in his very first sermon to his old colleagues, the five ascetics, at Isipatana (modern Sarnath) near Benares. In this sermon, as we have it in the original texts, these four Truths are given briefly. But there are innumerable places in the early Buddhist scriptures where they are explained again and again, with greater detail and in different ways. If we study the Four Noble Truths with the help of these references and explanations, we get a fairly good and accurate account of the essential teachings of the Buddha according to the original texts."[৩৯]
  20. "The word satya (Pali sacca) can certainly mean truth, but it might equally be rendered as 'real' or 'actual thing'. That is, we are not dealing here with propositional truths with which we must either agree or disagree, but with four 'true things' or 'realities' whose nature, we are told, the Buddha finally understood on the night of his awakening. [...] This is not to say that the Buddha's discourses do not contain theoretical statements of the nature of suffering, its cause, its cessation, and the path to its cessation, but these descriptions function not so much as dogmas of the Buddhist faith as a convenient conceptual framework for making sense of Buddhist thought.[৫৩]
  21. "These four truths are best understood, not as beliefs, but as categories of experience. They offer an alternative to the ordinary way we categorize what we can know and describe–[we ordinarily categorize things] in terms of me/not me, and being/not being. These ordinary categories create trouble, for the attempt to maintain full being for one's sense of "me" is a stressful effort doomed to failure, in that all of the components of that "me" are inconstant, stressful, and thus not worthy of identifying as "me" or "mine". [...][T]he study of the four noble truths is aimed first at understanding these four categories, and then at applying them to experience so that one may act properly toward each of the categories and thus attain the highest, most total happiness possible."[web ৮]
  22. In this translation by John T. Bullit, Bullit leaves the term "dukkha" untranslated. The main article that presents this translation is The Four Noble Truths.[web ৯] Links to each line in the translation are as follows: line 1: First Noble Truth; line 2: Second Noble Truth; line 3: Third Noble Truth; line 4: Fourth Noble Truth.
  23. এই চার শ্লোকের অনেকরকম অনুবাদ করা হয়েছে। যেমন:
    • ১ "Now this, monks, is the noble truth of dukkha: birth is dukkha, aging is dukkha, death is dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, & despair are dukkha; association with the unbeloved is dukkha; separation from the loved is dukkha; not getting what is wanted is dukkha. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are dukkha.
    ২ "And this, monks is the noble truth of the origination of dukkha: the craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming.
    ৩ "And this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of dukkha: the remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.
    ৪"And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration."[n ২৫]
    • ১ “Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.
    ২ “Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to re-becoming, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for becoming, craving for disbecoming.
    ৩ “Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, non-reliance on it.
    ৪ “Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is this noble eightfold path; that is, right view ... right concentration."[web ১০]
    • ১ “Brothers, there are four truths: the existence of suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the path which leads to the cessation of suffering. I call these the Four Noble Truths. The first is the existence of suffering. Birth, old age, sickness, and death are suffering. Sadness, anger, jealousy, worry, anxiety, fear, and despair are suffering. Separation from loved ones is suffering. Association with those you hate is suffering. Desire, attachment, and clinging to the five aggregates are suffering.
    ২ “Brothers, the second truth is the cause of suffering. Because of ignorance, people cannot see the truth about life, and they become caught in the flames of desire, anger, jealousy, grief, worry, fear, and despair.
    ৩ “Brothers, the third truth is the cessation of suffering. Understanding the truth of life brings about the cessation of every grief and sorrow and gives rise to peace and joy.
    ৪ “Brothers, the fourth truth is the path which leads to the cessation of suffering. It is the Noble Eightfold Path, which I have just explained. The Noble Eightfold Path is nourished by living mindfully. Mindfulness leads to concentration and understanding which liberates you from every pain and sorrow and leads to peace and joy. I will guide you along this path of realization.”[৫৪][৫৫][৫৬][৫৭]
  24. :And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress [dukkha]?
    From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness. From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form. From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media. From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming. From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play. Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering.[web ১১]
  25. :"Now what is the noble truth of stress [dukkha]? Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful; separation from the loved is stressful; not getting what one wants is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful.
    "And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] spheres of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.
    "And what is aging? Whatever aging, decrepitude, brokenness, graying, wrinkling, decline of life-force, weakening of the faculties of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called aging.
    "And what are the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stress [dukkha]? Form as a clinging-aggregate, feeling as a clinging-aggregate, perception as a clinging-aggregate, fabrications as a clinging-aggregate, consciousness as a clinging-aggregate: These are called the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stress." [web ১২]
  26. :Friends, just as the footprint of any breathing thing that walks can be placed within an elephant’s footprint, and so the elephant’s footprint is declared the chief of them because of its great size, so too, whatever beneficial ideas there are can all be included in the four Noble Truths. This sutta also elaborates on the meaning of the five aggregates which are mentioned in the first discourse as part of the cause of suffering.[web ১৪]
  27. :And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Bhikkhus, it is through not realizing, through not penetrating the Four Noble Truths that this long course of birth and death has been passed through and undergone by me as well as by you. What are these four? They are the noble truth of suffering; the noble truth of the origin of suffering; the noble truth of the cessation of suffering; and the noble truth of the way to the cessation of suffering. But now, bhikkhus, that these have been realized and penetrated, cut off is the craving for existence, destroyed is that which leads to renewed becoming, and there is no fresh becoming."
    Thus it was said by the Blessed One. And the Happy One, the Master, further said:
    Through not seeing the Four Noble Truths,
    Long was the weary path from birth to birth.
    When these are known, removed is rebirth's cause,
    The root of sorrow plucked; then ends rebirth.[web ১৫]

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

  1. Dhamma 1997, পৃ. 55.
  2. Buswell 2003, Volume One, p. 296.
  3. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 246-250.
  4. ৪.০ ৪.১ Goldstein 2002, পৃ. 24.
  5. Epstein 2004, পৃ. 42.
  6. ৬.০ ৬.১ ৬.২ ৬.৩ দর্শন দিগদর্শন- রাহুল সাংকৃত্যায়ন, অনুবাদ ছন্দা চট্টোপাধ্যায়, প্রথম প্রকাশ জুলাই, সেপ্টেম্বর ১৯৮৮, চিরায়ত প্রকাশন প্রাইভেট লিমিটেড, ১২, বঙ্কিম চ্যাটার্জী স্ট্রীট, কলিকাতা - ৭৩
  7. ৭.০ ৭.১ Gethin 1998, পৃ. 61.
  8. Walpola Rahula 2007, Kindle loc. 530.
  9. Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, পৃ. 11.
  10. ১০.০ ১০.১ Traleg Kyabgon 2001, পৃ. 4.
  11. ১১.০ ১১.১ Walpola Rahula 2007, loc. 791-809.
  12. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 70.
  13. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, Kindle loc. 943-946.
  14. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, Kindle loc. 966-979.
  15. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, Kindle loc. 1125-1132.
  16. Dalai Lama 1992, পৃ. 4,42.
  17. Ringu Tulku 2005, পৃ. 30.
  18. Traleg Kyabgon 2001, পৃ. 6.
  19. Ringu Tulku 2005, পৃ. 32.
  20. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 79.
  21. Traleg Kyabgon 2001, পৃ. 7.
  22. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, পৃ. 87-88.
  23. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 82.
  24. Thich Nhat Hahn 1999, পৃ. 28-46.
  25. Walpola Rahula 2007, Kindle loc. 3935-3939.
  26. Ajahn Succito 2010, pp. 99-100.
  27. ২৭.০ ২৭.১ ২৭.২ ২৭.৩ Ajahn Sumedho 2002, p. 9.
  28. Phillip Moffitt 2002, Kindle loc. 225-226.
  29. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 303-306.
  30. Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 27.
  31. Ajahn Succito 2010, পৃ. 109.
  32. ৩২.০ ৩২.১ Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 35.
  33. Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 39.
  34. Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 43.
  35. Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 44.
  36. Moffitt 2008, Kindle Location 2182.
  37. Moffitt 2008, Kindle Locations 2305-2308.
  38. Moffitt 2008, Kindle Locations 2546-2551.
  39. ৩৯.০ ৩৯.১ ৩৯.২ Walpola Rahula 2007, Kindle loc. 514-524.
  40. Dalai Lama 1998, পৃ. 1.
  41. Ringu Tulku 2005, পৃ. 22.
  42. ৪২.০ ৪২.১ Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, পৃ. 9.
  43. Ajahn Sumedho 2002, পৃ. 5.
  44. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 262-265.
  45. Geshe Tashi Tsering 2006, Kindle loc. 174.
  46. Lama Surya Das 1997, পৃ. 76.
  47. Traleg Kyabgon 2001, পৃ. 9.
  48. Bhikkhu Bodhi 2011, Kindle location 46-48.
  49. Leif 2009, পৃ. viii.
  50. Leifer 1997, পৃ. 70.
  51. Ajahn Sucitto, পৃ. 2.
  52. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 59.
  53. Gethin 1998, পৃ. 60.
  54. Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Locations 1853-1863.
  55. Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Locations 1822-1884.
  56. Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Location 7566.
  57. Thich Nhat Hanh 2012, পৃ. 81.

ওয়েব তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

উৎস[সম্পাদনা]

  • Ajahn Sumedho (2002), The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications 
  • Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's First Teaching, Shambhala 
  • Barber, Anthony W. (2008), Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley 
  • Bhikkhu Bodhi (translator) (2000), The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, আইএসবিএন 0-86171-331-1 
  • Bhikkhu Bodhi (2011), The Noble Eightfold Path: Way to the End of Suffering, Independent Publishers Group, Kindle Edition 
  • Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) (1995), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, আইএসবিএন 0-86171-072-X 
  • Bhikkhu Thanissaro (translator) (1997), Tittha Sutta: Sectarians (AN 3.61), সংগৃহীত 2007-11-12  (See also Anguttara Nikaya)
  • Brazier, David (2001), The Feeling Buddha, Robinson Publishing 
  • Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2003), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, MacMillan Reference Books, আইএসবিএন 978-0-02-865718-9 
  • Chogyam Trungpa (2009), The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation (edited by Judy Leif), Shambhala 
  • Dalai Lama (1998), The Four Noble Truths, Thorsons 
  • Dalai Lama (1992), The Meaning of Life, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Wisdom 
  • Dhamma, Ven. Dr. Rewata (1997), The First Discourse of the Buddha, Wisdom, আইএসবিএন 0-86171-104-1 
  • Duff, Tony (2008), Contemplation by way of the Twelve Interdependent Arisings, Padma Karpo Translation Committee, সংগৃহীত 2008-08-19 
  • Epstein, Mark (2004), Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective, Basic Books, Kindle Edition 
  • Feer, Leon (editor) (1976), The Samyutta Nikaya 5, London: Pali Text Society 
  • Fronsdal, Gil (2001), The Issue at Hand, self-published, Kindle Edition 
  • Geshe Tashi Tsering (2005), The Four Noble Truths: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume I, Wisdom, Kindle Edition 
  • Geshe Tashi Tsering (2006), Buddhist Psychology: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume III, Perseus Books Group, Kindle Edition 
  • Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press 
  • Goldstein, Joseph (2002), One Dharma: The Emerging Western Buddhism, HarperCollins 
  • Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kalupahana, David J. (1992-B), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 
  • Keown, Damien (2000), Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Kindle Edition 
  • Lama Surya Das (1997), Awakening the Buddha Within, Broadway Books, Kindle Edition 
  • Leif, Judith (2009), Introduction to 'The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation' by Chogyam Trungpa (edited by Judy Leif), Shambhala 
  • Leifer, Ron (1997), The Happiness Project, Snow Lion 
  • Lopez, Donald S. (2001), The Story of Buddhism, HarperCollins 
  • Mingyur Rinpoche (2007), The Joy of Living: Unlocking the Secret and Science of Happiness, Harmony Kindle Edition 
  • Moffitt, Philip (2008), Dancing with Life: Buddhist Insights for Finding Meaning and Joy in the Face of Suffering, Rodale, Kindle Edition 
  • Monier-Williams (1899, 1964), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, London: Oxford University Press, সংগৃহীত 27 December 2008 
  • Pema Chodron (2010), Comfortable with Uncertainty: 108 Teachings on Cultivating Fearlessness and Compassion, Shambhala 
  • Potter, Karl (2004), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Vol. IX: Buddhist philosophy from 350 to 600 AD 
  • Ringu Tulku (2005), Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion 
  • Rockhill, William (1992), The Life of Buddha And the Early History of His Order Derived from Tibetan, Asian Educational Services 
  • Smith, Huston; Novak, Philip (2009), Buddhism: A Concise Introduction, HarperOne, Kindle Edition 
  • Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks 
  • Thich Nhat Hanh (1991), Old Path White Clouds, Parallax Press 
  • Thich Nhat Hanh (1999), The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Three River Press 
  • Traleg Kyabgon (2001), The Essence of Buddhism, Shambhala 
  • Walpola Rahula (2007), What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press, Kindle Edition 
  • Wardner, A.K. (1970), Indian Buddhism, Delhi 
  • Watson, Burton (1993), The Lotus Sutra, Columbia University Press 
  • Williams, Paul (2002), Buddhist Thought, Taylor & Francis, Kindle Edition 
  • Williams, Paul (2008), Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge 

আরো পড়ুন[সম্পাদনা]

  • Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's First Teaching, Shambhala.
  • Ajahn Sumedho (2002), The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications. (Available for free in two formats: HTML and downloadable PDF)
  • Bhikkhu Bodhi (2006), The Noble Eightfold Path: Way to the End of Suffering, Pariyatti Publishing.
  • Chögyam Trungpa (2009), The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation, Shambhala.
  • Dalai Lama (1998), The Four Noble Truths, Thorsons.
  • Mark Epstein (2004), Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective. Basic Books. Kindle Edition. (Part 1 examines the four truths from a Western psychological perspective)
  • Geshe Tashi Tsering (2005), The Four Noble Truths: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume I, Wisdom, Kindle Edition
  • Rupert Gethin (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, (Chapter 3 is a commentary of about 25 pages.)
  • Lopez, Donald S. (2001), The Story of Buddhism, HarperCollins. (pp. 42–54)
  • Moffitt, Phillip (2008), Dancing with Life: Buddhist Insights for Finding Meaning and Joy in the Face of Suffering, Rodale, Kindle Edition. (An explanation of how to apply the Four Noble Truths to daily life)
  • Ringu Tulku (2005), Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion. (Part 1 of 3 is a commentary on the four truths)
  • Thich Nhat Hanh (1999), The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Three Rivers Press
  • Walpola Rahula (1974), What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press

বহিঃসংযোগ[সম্পাদনা]