আল-মনসুর

উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে
আল-মনসুর
ইসলামের খলিফা
সময়কাল ৭৫৪ - ৭৭৫
পূর্বসূরী আস সাফফাহ
উত্তরসূরী আল-মাহদি
পূর্ণ নাম
আবু জাফর আবদাল্লাহ ইবনে মুহাম্মদ আল-মনসুর
রাজবংশ আব্বাসীয় খিলাফত
পিতা মুহাম্মদ
মাতা একজন আফ্রিকান নারী
জন্ম ৭১৪
মৃত্যু ৭৭৫
ধর্ম ইসলাম

আবু জাফর আবদাল্লাহ ইবনে মুহাম্মদ আল-মনসুর (৯৫ হিজরী - ১৫৮ হিজরী) (৭১৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ – ৭৭৫ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ)[১] (আরবি : المنصور أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد) ছিলেন দ্বিতীয় আব্বাসীয় খলিফা। ১৩৬ হিজরী থেকে ১৫৮ হিজরী (৭৫৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ – ৭৭৫ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ) পর্যন্ত তিনি খলিফার পদে আসীন ছিলেন।[২][৩]

জীবন[সম্পাদনা]

আল-মনসুর ৯৫ হিজরী সনে (৭১৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ) আব্বাসীয় পরিবারে জন্মগ্রহণ করেন। তার পিতা মুহাম্মদ ছিলেন নবী মুহাম্মদ (সাঃ) এর চাচা আব্বাস ইবন আবদুল মুত্তালিবের প্র-পৌত্র; ১৪শ শতাব্দীতে মুরিশ ইতিহাসবিদ আলী ইবন আবদুল্লাহ রচিত রাউদ আল-কিরতাস গ্রন্থ অনুযায়ি তার মা একজন বারবার বংশীয় নারী ছিলেন।[৪] তিনি ১৩৬ হিজরীর যিলহজ্জ থেকে ১৫৮ হিজরীর যিলহজ্জ (৭৫৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ – ৭৭৫ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ) পর্যন্ত শাসন করেন। ৭৬২ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে তিনি তার নতুন রাজকীয় আবাসস্থল ও প্রাসাদ হিসেবে মদীনাত আস-সালাম (শান্তির শহর) প্রতিষ্ঠা করেন, যা পরবর্তীতে রাজকীয় রাজধানী বাগদাদের মূলকেন্দ্রে পরিণত হয়।

তার ভাই আবুল আব্বাসের (যিনি পরবর্তীতে আস-সাফফাহ (রক্তপাতকারী) হিসেবে পরিচিত হন) মৃত্যুর ক্ষমতায় অধিষ্ঠিত হন। ৭৫৫ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে তিনি আবু মুসলিমকে হত্যার নির্দেশ দেন। আবু মুসলিম একজন অনুগত ব্যক্তি ছিলেন। তিনি পূর্বাঞ্চলীয় ইরানী প্রদেশ খোরাসানের বাসিন্দা ছিলেন। তিনি ৭৪৯-৭৫০ সালের গৃহযুদ্ধের সময় তিনি উমাইয়াদের বিরুদ্ধে আব্বাসীয়দের বিজয়ে নেতৃত্ব দেন। আল-মনসুরের আমলে তিনি ইরান ও ট্রান্সঅক্সানিয়ার অবিতর্কিত শাসক ছিলেন। সাম্রাজ্যে ক্ষমতার লড়াই স্তব্ধ করাই এই হত্যাকান্ডের উদ্দেশ্য হিসেবে বিবেচিত হয়। তবে কিছু তথ্য মতে, আবু মুসলিম অবিশ্বস্ত হয়ে উঠছিলেন তাই তাকে হত্যা করা আবশ্যক হয়ে দাঁড়ায়।[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন].

আল-মনসুর দুর্নীতির সন্দেহে তার উত্তরাধীকারী হিসেবে ঈসা বিন মুসা বিন মুহাম্মদ বিন আলীর স্থলে আল-মাহদিকে মনোনীত করেন। তার জ্যেষ্ঠ ভাই সাফফাহের মত তিনিও বিরোধীদের থেকে নিষ্কৃতি উদ্দেশ্যে অঞ্চলগুলোকে একত্রীভূত করতে চাইতেন।

তার শাসনামলে সাহিত্য ও পাণ্ডিত্যপূর্ণ কর্ম ইসলামী জগতে পূর্ণ উদ্যমে যাত্রা শুরু করে। উমাইয়া খলিফা হিসাম ইবন আবদুল মালিক পারস্যের দরবারী প্রথা গ্রহণ করলেও আল-মনসুরের শাসনের আগ পর্যন্ত পারস্য সাহিত্য ও পাণ্ডিত্য ইসলামী জগতে সত্যিকারভাবে বিস্তারলাভ করতে পারেনি। আল মনসুরের আমলে পারস্য জাতীয়তাবাদের উপর নজরদারী কমার ফলে পারসিক পন্ডিতদের মধ্যে শুবিয়া 'র জন্ম হয়। এটি ছিল একটি বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক আন্দোলন। এতে পারস্যের শিল্প ও সংস্কৃতি আরবদের চেয়ে উন্নত এই বিশ্বাস প্রকাশ পেয়েছিল। এই আন্দোলন অষ্টম শতকের আরব-পারস্য রচনার প্রভাবক হিসেবে কাজ করে।

ইংরেজ রাজা অফফা অব মেরসিয়ার(৭৫৭-৭৯৬) স্বর্ণমুদ্রা। আল-মনসুরের দিনারের প্রতিলিপি[৫] ব্রিটিশ জাদুঘর

পারসিক জ্ঞানের চেয়ে অধিক গুরুত্বপূরন ছিল অনারবদের ইসলাম গ্রহণ। জিজিয়া আদায়ের সুবিধার জন্য উমাইয়ারা ধর্মান্তরকে নিরুৎসাহিত করত। এই সময়ে এই আত্মীকরণের ফলে অত্র অঞ্চলে ইসলামের প্রসার বৃদ্ধি পায়। ৭৫০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে খিলাফতের ৮% বাসিন্দা ছিল মুসলিম, আল-মনসুরের শাসনের শেষদিকে এটি দ্বিগুণ হয়ে ১৫% হয়।

৭৫৬ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে আল-মনসুর আন শি বিদ্রোহে আন লুশানকে প্রতিহত করার ৪০০০ আরব যোদ্ধাকে চৈনিকদের সাহায্যার্থে প্রেরণ করেন। যুদ্ধের পর তারা চীনে থেকে যায়।[৬][৭][৮][৯][১০] আল-মনসুর ট্যাং কাহিনীতে “আপু চাফু” হিসেবে বিবৃত হন।[১১][১২][১৩][১৪][১৫][১৬][১৭] [১৮][১৯][২০][২১][২২]

আল-মনসুর ৭৭৫ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে হজ্জ উপলক্ষে মক্কায় যাওয়ার সময় যাত্রাপথে মৃত্যুবরণ করেন। পথের কোথাও খনন করা কয়েকশ কবরের কোথাও তাকে দাফন করা হয়। উমাইয়াদের কাছ থেকে তার সমাধিকে আড়াল করার উদ্দেশ্যে এমনটা করা হয়। তার পুত্র আল-মাহদি তার উত্তরাধীকারী হন।

বেশ কিছু সূত্র অনুযায়ী ইমাম আবু হানিফা আল-মনসুর কর্তৃক কারারুদ্ধ হন। ইমাম মালিক ইবনে আনাসও তার শাসনামলে নিপীড়িত হন। তবে আল-মনসুর এতে জড়িত ছিলেন না - মূলত তার এক ভাই যিনি ঐ সময় মদীনার শাসক ছিলেন তিনিই এজন্য দায়ী। আল-মনসুর তার ভাইকে শাস্তি দেন এবং ইমাম মালিককে সমর্থন করেন। (ইয়াকুবী, খন্ড ৩, পৃষ্ঠা ৮৬; মুরুজ আল-যাহাব, খন্ড ৩, পৃষ্ঠা ২৬৮-২৭০)

তথ্যসূত্র[সম্পাদনা]

উইকিসোর্স
উইকিসোর্স-এ এই লেখকের লেখা মূল বই রয়েছে:
  1. Al-Souyouti, Tarikh Al-Kholafa'a (The History of Caliphs)
  2. Stanley Lane-Poole, The Coins of the Eastern Khaleefahs in the British Museum
  3. Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA; ISBN 978-0-465-00888-9. See p.81.
  4. World's Great Men of Color vol. II
  5. Medieval European Coinage By Philip Grierson p.330
  6. Oscar Chapuis (1995)। A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc। Greenwood Publishing Group। পৃ: 92 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)আইএসবিএন 0313296227। সংগৃহীত 2010-6-28 
  7. Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (2002)। The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture। Routledge। পৃ: 283 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)আইএসবিএন 0700717625। সংগৃহীত 2010-6-28 
  8. Bradley Smith, Wango H. C. Weng (1972)। China: a history in art। Harper & Row। পৃ: 129 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)। সংগৃহীত 2010-6-28 
  9. Hugh D. R. Baker (1990)। Hong Kong images: people and animals। Hong Kong University Press। পৃ: 53 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)আইএসবিএন 9622092551। সংগৃহীত 2010-6-28 
  10. Charles Patrick Fitzgerald (1961)। China: a short cultural history। Praeger। পৃ: 332 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)। সংগৃহীত 2010-6-28 
  11. Marshall Broomhall (1910)। Islam in China: a neglected problem। LONDON 12 PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.C.: Morgan & Scott, ltd.। পৃ: 25 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "CHAPTER II CHINA AND THE ARABS From the Rise of the Abbaside Caliphate With the rise of the Abbasides we enter upon a somewhat different phase of Moslem history, and approach the period when an important body of Moslem troops entered and settled within the Chinese Empire. While the Abbasides inaugurated that era of literature and science associated with the Court at Bagdad, the hitherto predominant Arab element began to give way to the Turks, who soon became the bodyguard of the Caliphs, " until in the end the Caliphs became the helpless tools of their rude protectors." Several embassies from the Abbaside Caliphs to the Chinese Court are recorded in the T'ang Annals, the most important of these being those of (A-bo-lo-ba) Abul Abbas, the founder of the new dynasty, that of (A-p'u-cKa-fo) Abu Giafar, the builder of Bagdad, of whom more must be said immediately; and that of (A-lun) Harun al Raschid, best known, perhaps, in modern days through the popular work, Arabian Nights.1 The Abbasides or " Black Flags," as they were commonly called, are known in Chinese history as the Heh-i Ta-shih, " The Black-robed Arabs." Five years after the rise of the Abbasides, at a time when Abu Giafar, the second Caliph, was busy plotting the assassination of his great and able rival Abu Muslim, who is regarded as " the leading figure of the age " and the de facto founder of the house of Abbas so far as military prowess is concerned, a terrible rebellion broke out in China. This was in 755 A.d., and the leader was a Turk or Tartar named An Lu-shan. This man, who had gained great favour with the Emperor Hsuan Tsung, and had been placed at the head of a vast army operating against the Turks and Tartars on the north-west frontier, ended in proclaiming his independence and declaring war upon his now aged Imperial patron. The Emperor, driven from his capital, abdicated in favour of his son, Su Tsung (756-763 A.D.), who at once appealed to the Arabs for help. The Caliph Abu Giafar, whose army, we are told by Sir William Muir, " was fitted throughout with improved weapons and armour," responded to this request, and sent a contingent of some 4000 men, who enabled the Emperor, in 757 A.d., to recover his two capitals, Sianfu and Honanfu. These Arab troops, who probably came from some garrison on the frontiers of Turkestan, never returned to their former camp, but remained in China, where they married Chinese wives, and thus became, according to common report, the real nucleus of the naturalised Chinese Mohammedans of to-day. ^ While this story has the support of the official history of the T'ang dynasty, there is, unfortunately, no authorised statement as to how many troops the Caliph really sent.1 The statement, however, is also supported by the Chinese Mohammedan inscriptions and literature. Though the settlement of this large body of Arabs in China may be accepted as probably the largest and most definite event recorded concerning the advent of Islam, it is necessary at the same time not to overlook the facts already stated in the previous chapter, which prove that large numbers of foreigners had entered China prior to this date." 
  12. Frank Brinkley (1902)। China: its history, arts and literature, Volume 2। Volumes 9-12 of Trübner's oriental series। BOSTON AND TOKYO: J.B.Millet company। পৃ: 150 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "It would seem, however, that trade occupied the attention of the early Mohammedan settlers rather than religious propagan dism; that while they observed the tenets and practised the rites of their faith in China, they did not undertake any strenuous campaign against either Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or the State creed, and that they constituted a floating rather than a fixed element of the population, coming and going between China and the West by the oversea or the overland routes. According to Giles, the true stock of the present Chinese Mohammedans was a small army of four thousand Arabian soldiers, who, being sent by the Khaleef Abu Giafar in 755 to aid in putting down a rebellion, were subsequently permitted to * * settle in China, where they married native wives. The numbers of this colony received large accessions in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries during the conquests of Genghis, and ultimately the Mohammedans formed an appreciable element of the population, having their own mosques and schools, and observing the rites of their religion, but winning few converts except among the aboriginal tribes, as the Lolos and the Mantsu. Their failure as propagandists is doubtless due to two causes, first, that, according to the inflexible rule of their creed, the Koran might not be translated into Chinese or any other foreign language; secondly and chiefly, that their denunciations of idolatry were as unpalatable to ancestor-worshipping Chinese as were their interdicts against pork and wine. They were never prevented, however, from practising their faith so long as they obeyed the laws of the land, and the numerous mosques that exist throughout China prove what a large measure of liberty these professors of a strange creed enjoyed. One feature of the mosques is noticeable, however: though distinguished by large arches and by Arabic inscriptions, they are generally constructed and arranged so as to bear some resemblance to Buddhist temples, and they have tablets carrying the customary ascription of reverence to the Emperor of China, — facts suggesting that their builders were not entirely free from a sense of the inexpediency of differentiating the evidences of their religion too conspicuously from those of the popular creed. It has been calculated that in the regions north of the Yangtse the followers of Islam aggregate as many as ten millions, and that eighty thousand are to be found in one of the towns of Szchuan. On the other hand, just as it has been shown above that although the Central Government did not in any way interdict or obstruct the tradal operations of foreigners in early times, the local officials sometimes subjected them to extortion and maltreatment of a grievous and even unendurable nature, so it appears that while as a matter of State policy, full tolerance was extended to the Mohammedan creed, its disciples frequently found themselves the victims of such unjust discrimination at the hand of local officialdom that they were driven to seek redress in rebellion. That, however, did not occur until the nineteenth century. There is no evidence that, prior to the time of the Great Manchu Emperor Chienlung (1736-1796), Mohammedanism presented any deterrent aspect to the Chinese. That renowned ruler, whose conquests carried his banners to the Pamirs and the Himalayas, did indeed conceive a strong dread of the potentialities of Islamic fanaticism reinforced by disaffection on the part of the aboriginal tribes among whom the faith had many adherents. He is said to have entertained at one time the terrible project of eliminating this source of danger in Shensi and Kansuh by killing every Mussulman found there, but whether he really contemplated an act so foreign to the general character of his procedure is doubtful. The broad fact is that the Central Government of China has never persecuted Mohammedans or discriminated against them. They are allowed to present themselves at the examinations for civil or military appointments, and the successful candidates obtain office as readily as their Chinese competitors." Original from the University of California
  13. Frank Brinkley (1904)। Japan [and China]: China; its history, arts and literature। Volume 10 of Japan [and China]: Its History, Arts and Literature। LONDON 34 HENRIETTA STREET, W. C. AND EDINBURGH: Jack। পৃ: 150 |pages= অথবা |at= অতিরিক্ত (সাহায্য)। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "It would seem, however, that trade occupied the attention of the early Mohammedan settlers rather than religious propagan dism; that while they observed the tenets and practised the rites of their faith in China, they did not undertake any strenuous campaign against either Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or the State creed, and that they constituted a floating rather than a fixed element of the population, coming and going between China and the West by the oversea or the overland routes. According to Giles, the true stock of the present Chinese Mohammedans was a small army of four thousand Arabian soldiers, who, being sent by the Khaleef Abu Giafar in 755 to aid in putting down a rebellion, were subsequently permitted to * * settle in China, where they married native wives. The numbers of this colony received large accessions in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries during the conquests of Genghis, and ultimately the Mohammedans formed an appreciable element of the population, having their own mosques and schools, and observing the rites of their religion, but winning few converts except among the aboriginal tribes, as the Lolos and the Mantsu. Their failure as propagandists is doubtless due to two causes, first, that, according to the inflexible rule of their creed, the Koran might not be translated into Chinese or any other foreign language; secondly and chiefly, that their denunciations of idolatry were as unpalatable to ancestor-worshipping Chinese as were their interdicts against pork and wine. They were never prevented, however, from practising their faith so long as they obeyed the laws of the land, and the numerous mosques that exist throughout China prove what a large measure of liberty these professors of a strange creed enjoyed. One feature of the mosques is noticeable, however: though distinguished by large arches and by Arabic inscriptions, they are generally constructed and arranged so as to bear some resemblance to Buddhist temples, and they have tablets carrying the customary ascription of reverence to the Emperor of China, — facts suggesting that their builders were not entirely free from a sense of the inexpediency of differentiating the evidences of their religion too conspicuously from those of the popular creed. It has been calculated that in the regions north of the Yangtse the followers of Islam aggregate as many as ten millions, and that eighty thousand are to be found in one of the towns of Szchuan. On the other hand, just as it has been shown above that although the Central Government did not in any way interdict or obstruct the tradal operations of foreigners in early times, the local officials sometimes subjected them to extortion and maltreatment of a grievous and even unendurable nature, so it appears that while as a matter of State policy, full tolerance was extended to the Mohammedan creed, its disciples frequently found themselves the victims of such unjust discrimination at the hand of local officialdom that they were driven to seek redress in rebellion. That, however, did not occur until the nineteenth century. There is no evidence that, prior to the time of the Great Manchu Emperor Chienlung (1736-1796), Mohammedanism presented any deterrent aspect to the Chinese. That renowned ruler, whose conquests carried his banners to the Pamirs and the Himalayas, did indeed conceive a strong dread of the potentialities of Islamic fanaticism reinforced by disaffection on the part of the aboriginal tribes among whom the faith had many adherents. He is said to have entertained at one time the terrible project of eliminating this source of danger in Shensi and Kansuh by killing every Mussulman found there, but whether he really contemplated an act so foreign to the general character of his procedure is doubtful. The broad fact is that the Central Government of China has never persecuted Mohammedans or discriminated against them. They are allowed to present themselves at the examinations for civil or military appointments, and the successful candidates obtain office as readily as their Chinese competitors." Original from Princeton University
  14. Arthur Evans Moule (1914)। The Chinese people: a handbook on China ...। LONDON NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C.: Society for promoting Christian knowledge। পৃ: 317। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "ough the actual date and circumstances of the introduction of Islam into China cannot be traced with certainty further back than the thirteenth century, yet the existence of settlements of foreign Moslems with their Mosques at Ganfu (Canton) during the T'ang dynasty (a.d. 618—907) is certain, and later they spread to Ch'uan-chou and to Kan-p'u, Hangchow, and perhaps to Ningpo and Shanghai. These were not preaching or proselytising inroads, but commercial enterprises, and in the latter half of the eighth century there were Moslem troops in Shensi, 3,000 men, under Abu Giafar, coming to support the dethroned Emperor in A.d. 756. In the thirteenth century the influence of individual Moslems was immense, especially that of the Seyyid Edjell Shams ed-Din Omar, who served the Mongol Khans till his death in Yunnan A.d. 1279. His family still exists in Yunnan, and has taken a prominent part in Moslem affairs in China. The present Moslem element in China is most numerous in Yunnan and Kansu; and the most learned Moslems reside chiefly in Ssuch'uan, the majority of their books being printed in the capital city, Ch'eng-tu. Kansu is perhaps the most dominantly Mohammedan province in China, and here many different sects are found, and mosques with minarets used by the orthodox muezzin calling to prayer, and in one place veiled women are met with. These, however, are not Turks or Saracens, but for the most part pure Chinese. The total Moslem population is probably under 4,000,000, though other statistical estimates, always uncertain in China, vary from thirty to ten millions; but the figures given here are the most reliable at present obtainable, and when it is remembered that Islam in China has not been to any great extent a preaching or propagandist power by force or the sword, it is difficult to understand the survival and existence of such a large number as that, small, indeed, compared with former estimates, but surely a very large and vigorous element." Original from the University of California
  15. Herbert Allen Giles (1886)। A glossary of reference on subjects connected with the Far East (2 সংস্করণ)। HONGKONG: Messrs. Lane। পৃ: 141। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "MAHOMEDANS: IEJ Iej. First settled in China in the Year of the Mission, A.D. 628, under Wahb-Abi-Kabcha a maternal uncle of Mahomet, who was sent with presents to the Emperor. Wahb-Abi-Kabcha travelled by sea to Cantoa, and thence overland to Si-ngan Fu, the capital, where he was well received. The first mosque was built at Canton, where, after several restorations, it still exists. Another mosque was erected in 742, but many of these M. came to China simply as traders, and by and by went back to their own country. The true stock of the present Chinese Mahomedans was a small army of 4,000 Arabian soldiers sent by the Khaleef Abu Giafar in 755 to aid in putting down a rebellion. These soldiers had permission to settle in China, where they married native wives; and three centuries later, with the conquests of Genghis Khan, largo numbers of Arabs penetrated into the Empire and swelled the Mahomedan community." Original from the New York Public Library
  16. Herbert Allen Giles (1926)। Confucianism and its rivals। Forgotten Books। পৃ: 139। আইএসবিএন 1606802488। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "In7= 789 the Khalifa Harun al Raschid dispatched a mission to China, and there had been one or two less important missions in the seventh and eighth centuries; but from 879, the date of the Canton massacre, for more than three centuries to follow, we hear nothing of the Mahometans and their religion. They were not mentioned in the edict of 845, which proved such a blow to Buddhism and Nestorian Christianityl perhaps because they were less obtrusive in ithe propagation of their religion, a policy aided by the absence of anything like a commercial spirit in religious mattters." 
  17. Confucianism and its Rivals। Forgotten Books। পৃ: 223। আইএসবিএন 145100849X। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "The first mosque built at Canton, where, after several restorations, it may still be seen. The minaret, known as the Bare Pagoda, to distinguish it from a much more ornamental Buddhist pagoda near by, dates back to 850. There must at that time have been a considerable number of Mahometans in Canton, thought not so many as might be supposed if reliance could be placed on the figures given in reference to a massacre which took place in 879. The fact is that most of these Mahometans went to China simply as traders ; they did not intend to settle permanently in the country, and when business permitted, they returned to their old haunts. About two thousand Mussulman families are still to be found at Canton, and a similar number at Foochow ; descendants, perhaps, of the old sea-borne contingents which began to arrive in the seventh and eighth centuries. These remnants have nothing to do with the stock from which came the comparatively large Mussulman communities now living and practising their religion in sthe provinces of Ssŭch'uan, Yünnan, and Kansuh. The origin of the latter was as follows. In A.D. 756 the Khalifa Abu Giafar sent a small army of three thousand Arab soldiers to aid in putting down a rebellion." 
  18. Everett Jenkins (1999)। The Muslim diaspora: a comprehensive reference to the spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas। Volume 1 of The Muslim Diaspora (illustrated সংস্করণ)। McFarland। পৃ: 61। আইএসবিএন 0786404310। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "China • Arab troops were dispatched by Abu Gia- far to China." (Original from the University of Michigan )
  19. । পৃ: 295 http://books.google.com/books?id=XVMuAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA295&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&hl=en&ei=28LnTsDrG8bs0gG51sTtCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=abu%20giafar%20chinese&f=false। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14  |title= অনুপস্থিত বা খালি (সাহায্য)
  20. Stanley Ghosh (1961)। Embers in Cathay। Doubleday। পৃ: 60। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "During the reign of Abbassid Caliph Abu Giafar in the middle of the eighth century, many Arab soldiers evidently settled near the garrisons on the Chinese frontier." (Original from the University of Michigan, Library of Catalonia )
  21. Heinrich Hermann (1912)। Chinesische Geschichte (German ভাষায়)। D. Gundert। পৃ: 77। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "785, als die Tibeter in China einfielen, sandte Abu Giafar eine zweite Truppe, zu deren Unterhalt die Regierung die Teesteuer verdoppelte. Sie wurde ebenso angesiedelt. 787 ist von 4000 fremden Familien aus Urumtsi und Kaschgar in Si-Ngan die Rede: für ihren Unterhalt wurden 500000 Taël" (Original from the University of California )
  22. Deutsche Literaturzeitung für Kritik der Internationalen Wissenschaft, Volume 49, Issues 27-52। Weidmannsche Buchhandlung। 1928। পৃ: 1617। সংগৃহীত 2011 December 14। "Die Fassung, daß mohammedanische Soldaten von Turkestan ihre Religion nach China gebracht hätten, ist irreführend. Das waren vielmehr die 4000 Mann, die der zweite Kalif Abu Giafar 757 schickte, ebenso wie die Hilfstruppen 785 bei dem berühmten Einfali der Tibeter. Die Uiguren waren damals noch" (Original from Indiana University )
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